Dahua AI series products adopt the most advanced AI technologies, including deep learning algorithms that primarily target people and vehicles, which provides higher flexibility and accuracy for end-users. This enables the Dahua AI series to offer various advanced applications such as Face Recognition, ANPR, Metadata, People Counting, traffic data statistics, etc.The complete lineup of Dahua AI includes network (PTZ) cameras, network video recorders, servers, and platform management products. Beyond seeing the world, the power of AI allows devices to perceive the environment and understand the world in a better way. System OverviewPro AI series contains Face Capture, Perimeter Protection and People Counting functions. Powered by deep-learning Artificial Intelligence algorithms, significantly improved accuracy. Active Deterrence and Full Color camera are also in this series. Meanwhile, the series features starlight and smart IR technology. This series fully protected from dust and water, certified to IP67 standard. Functions Perimeter ProtectionDahua’s Perimeter Protection functions significantly improved accuracy. Perimeter Protection reduces false alarms and decreases pixel count requirements for object detection. Perimeter Protection features custom tripwires based on object type for automation in limited access areas such as pedestrian or vehicle-only zones. This combination of advanced AI analytics and real-time alerts to a desktop or to a mobile client reduces system requirements and resources resulting in greater surveillance system efficiency. People CountingPeople Counting function uses advanced image processing technology to capture depth information from within images. The camera pairs this information with deep learning algorithms to analyze and detect human bodies and track target objects in real time. The camera provides statistics for separate individuals’ entrance and exit with up to 95% counting accuracy. MetadataMetadata is feature attribute information extracted from a target object which can be used for data retrieval. Dahua face detection camera can extract six facial attributes and output the metadata for analysis. ePoE technologyThe ePoE technology of Dahua, designed internally, adopts advanced 2D-PAM3 coding modulation from physical layer, and realizes full duplex transmission over 800 meters at the speed of 10Mbps, or 300 meters at the speed of 100Mbps via Cat 5 or coaxial cable media. Besides, it supports PoE and PoC power supply technology which has greatly simplified construction and wiring. Dahua ePoE technology offer a new way to accomplish long distance transmission between IP camera and network switch. It allows more flexible surveillance system design, improves reliability and saves construction and wiring cost. Protection(IP67, wide voltage)The camera allows for ±30% input voltage tolerance, suitable for the most unstable conditions for outdoor applications. Its 6KV lightning rating provides effective protection for both the camera and its structure against lightning. Subjected and certified to rigorous dust and immersion tests (IP67) , the camera is the choice for installation in even the most unforgiving environments.
VIVOTEK’s FE9391-EV is the next generation of market-leading 12-Megapixel 360° panomorph network camera, featuring a detailed 12-Megapixel CMOS sensor which guarantees superb image quality. Utilizing the latest in panomorph lens technology for 180° panoramic view (wall mount) or 360° surround view (ceiling/wall/floor mount) with zero blind spots, the camera is able to provide comprehensive coverage of open areas such as airports, shopping malls, parking lots, retail stores, offices and more. Removable IR-Cut Filter The FE9391-EV (IP66, IK10 rated) is the successor to FE8391-V in the VIVOTEK 360° surround view family. The new model is equipped with a removable IR-cut filter and WDR Enhancement technology, allowing the camera to maintain optimal image quality around the clock for unparalleled visibility under high-contrast lighting environments. 3D Noise Reduction technology enables the camera to capture clear, polished video under low-light conditions. The FE9391-EV's use of the latest in panomorph lens technology has led to much improved image quality with a huge drop in edge distortion. Latest In IR Illumination The FE9391-EV is also updated with the latest in IR illumination, VIVOTEK's Smart IR II technology with Adaptive IR. Adaptive IR enables the FE9391-EV's IR illuminators to adjust to the scene together or individually to provide the best possible IR image, reducing glaring hotspots and/or underexposed dark spots. Advanced Video Content Analysis The FE9391-EV is also be the first to include a new wave of advanced Video Content Analysis (VCA). Available in 4Q 2017, this includes better object detection in order to reduce false alarms. Through advanced Video Content Analysis functions including crowd detection features the FE9391-EV is the next steps in elevating surveillance cameras from image capturing devices to advanced notification instruments, allowing users to see more in smarter ways.
March Networks’ new ME3 Pendant IR PTZ camera delivers uncompromising security for large indoor and outdoor spaces, as well as essential features to ensure high reliability, clear image capture and storage efficiency. Ideal for large-footprint environments such as parking lots, big box stores and transit stations, the camera incorporates electronic image stabilisation and HDR, so recorded video is always crisp. Universal Power over Ethernet (UPoE) ensures redundancy and zero downtime by switching to PoE when a camera loses power. And built-in PTZ auto-tracking uses motion detection to automatically track a person or object, keeping the image centered and in focus. Software updates are quick and easy to apply using the mass management feature available in Command Enterprise software, while PTZ-optimized motion histograms speed search capabilities. The 3MP PTZ includes a 40x zoom lens to capture objects 25% further away than industry-standard PTZs, and IR LEDs for uniform illumination in total darkness at a distance of more than 650 feet/200 metres. It also incorporates a Low Bit Rate compression mode to improve bandwidth and storage efficiency by as much as 50% when the camera is in its home position. The ME3 Pendant IR PTZ is protected by a weather-proof enclosure, and generates an alert in the event someone attempts to obstruct or move the camera. It comes with a variety of mounting options, including a 1.5” NPT wall mount and short pendant mount, both with back boxes.
System OverviewThis PIR model is an indoor/outdoor dual detection camera which uses both video and infrared sensor to achieve accurate motion detection functionality. It also supports active deterrence feature which warns off intruders with white light and siren even before users are aware of the incident. This camera is an ideal choice for applications which require intrusion protect and video verification , such as courtyards, offices, warehouses, stores, etc. Functions 4 Signals over 1 Coaxial CableHDCVI technology supports 4 signals to be transmitted over 1 coaxial cable simultaneously, i.e. video, audio*, data and power. Dual-way data transmission allows the HDCVI camera to interact with the HCVR, such as sending control signal or triggering alarm. Moreover, HDCVI technology supports PoC for construction flexibility.* Audio input is available for some models of HDCVI cameras. Long Distance TransmissionHDCVI technology guarantees real-time transmission at long distance without any loss. It supports up to 700m transmission for 5MP HD video via coaxial cable, and up to 300m via UTP cable.**Actual results verified by real-scene testing in Dahua's test laboratory. SimplicityHDCVI technology inherits the born feature of simplicity from traditional analog surveillance system, making itself a best choice for investment protection. HDCVI system can seamlessly upgrade the traditional ana-log system without replacing existing coaxial cabling. The plug and play approach enables full HD video surveillance without the hassle of configuring a network. Dual DetectionThe detection accuracy is well guaranteed with both motion detection and PIR detection, which can eliminate the number of false alarms you receive. With the advantage of dual detection technology, your HDD will now last longer and not be recorded with false alarms. Gone are the days of alarms caused by heavy wind or rain. Instead, only true threats will instantly trigger an alarm and allow you to protect your loved ones. Active DeterrenceActive deterrence is to warn off intruders actively with white light and siren even before users are aware of the incidence. Once an intursion is detected, the white light will turn on and the siren will buzzer to alert the intruder. The white light can be set to Normally on or Flash, the content of siren is configurable. StarlightWith the adoption of large sized high performance sensor, the camera is able to provide incomparable performance even under extreme lowlight environment. The starlight feature allows more details to be captured and accurate color to be recognized at night or in scenes with limited illumination. Smart IRThe camera is designed with array LED IR illumination for best lowlight performance. Smart IR is a technology to ensure brightness uniformity in B/W image under low illumination. Dahua’s unique Smart IR adjusts to the intensity of camera's infrared LEDs to compensate for the distance of an object, and prevents IR LEDs from overexposing images as the object come closer to the camera. ProtectionThe camera's outstanding reliability is unsurpassed due to its rugged design.The camera is protected against water and dust with IP67, making it suitable for indoor or outdoor environments.With PIR working temperature range of -20 °C to +60 °C (-4 °F to +140 °F), the MotionEye is designed for extreme temperature environments. Supporting ±30% input voltage tolerance, this camera suits even the most unstable power supply conditions. Its 4KV lightning rating provides protection against the camera and its structure from the effects of lightning.
In Mirasys VMS Version 8 particular attention has been paid to security and privacy. Also, pre-existing familiar product features such as audit trail and versatile material management and search functionality brings significant benefits, for example, for the new EU General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) requirements. Mirasys V8.4 is also a foundation for totally new opportunities related to this; what comes to system management and usage reporting, for example. Functional Effectiveness Mirasys VMS is quick and easy to install, and especially effective in networked, IP-based CCTV systems and their operational and management needs, such as centralized management and upgrading/updating of servers, drivers and client applications without requiring on-site travel to remote locations. User profiles are easy to create and change. Servers can be pre-installed and pre-configured before delivering to the deployment location. The Mirasys VMS V8 modern Spotter for Windows user interface can be adapted to individual and specific needs and preferences and provides more visual space for videos without sacrificing any functionality. The new HTML5 (Hypertext Markup Language, Version 5) based user interface in V8.4 offers easy access to the Mirasys system from anywhere; PCs, tablets or smartphones. Integration With Other Systems Video management systems are also more and more frequently integrated with other systems such as building management or access control. Video feeds will in the future also often be a replacement for on-site visits or tours by personnel. This reduces operational costs for security and building maintenance. User Interfaces Video surveillance camera features are consistently improving. Image quality can be exceptionally good compared to what it used to be only a few years ago. The newest cameras also require much less network bandwidth due to more effective encoding formats, such as H.265/HEVC (from 40% up to 60% of bandwidth and storage space savings, depending on the footage and device without any loss of quality, or increased quality at the same level with the H.264/AVC encoding) that many IP camera manufacturers have started to support. Individual servers can handle more simultaneously connected cameras than before, and the entire system no longer has an actual upper limit. Mirasys VMS V8 is the answer to the scalability and performance needs of new camera technologies from any manufacturer. Thus, the video management system can be designed freely using the best equipment for the customer-specific requirements, and can also support all future needs. User-Specific Requirements As video management evolves, traditional command and control (monitoring) services also change. In addition to security monitoring, this will also involve monitoring other systems (building management, access control, fire alarms, or even manufacturing, logistics and operational systems or processes). More and more often these are done by a service provider, and not the organization whose premises, systems or processes are monitored and/or managed. Further, systems today have more and more different types of users; and variation in user skills or access rights can be significant. This leads to individual, user-specific requirements for system access and use, while simultaneously requiring that the users must be able to access the system from different locations and using different devices. Versatile Possibilities And Efficiency Of Management For systems integrations and management, Mirasys VMS Version 8.4 brings new and more versatile possibilities with its new HTTP based Application Programming Interface (API). A particularly significant benefit is that the HTTP API allows also for automation of the system configuration and management. The new HTTP API provides modern REST-compliant (Representational State Transfer, or ”RESTful”) web services which allow requesting systems to access and manipulate textual representations of web resources using a uniform and predefined set of stateless operations from any platform (almost any operating system and practically any programming language). Version 8.4 also brings a new software licensing model that brings remarkable simplification, effectiveness and cost savings, because from V8.4 onwards every server no longer requires its own server-specific software license, but all the software and licence features and limits (such as number of cameras, number of servers, number of simultaneously logged in users or any other functions) can, in any size system, be managed through a single system-wide software licence controlled via the system’s Management servers. The new V8.4 licences are also no longer dependent on the server’s MAC (Media Access Control) address, but uses a multi-factor “License Protection Key” that remains valid even if the hardware system has to be changed (e.g., new or replacement NIC, Network Interface Card, or new or replacement graphics controller, etc.).
The Contera NVR Appliance from Arecont Vision Costar is designed to offer powerful IP recording in an affordable, compact chassis. The Contera NVR Appliance is equipped with an on-board 8 or 16 channel PoE switch, that can be upgraded to 24 channels, allowing for Plug and Play connection with ConteraWS® or ONVIF cameras. With full integration to ConteraWS® Web Services, the Contera NVR Appliance offers centralized user management, single sign-on convenience, mobile apps and a web client that allows for easy remote connection to your recorders. Network setup is fast and easy using ConteraWS® Web Services, and eliminates the need for port forwarding or DDNS. The Contera NVR Appliance runs on a secure Linux OS and comes preloaded with ConteraVMS® Server software as a turnkey solution.
The Evolution Stainless Steel cameras, part of Oncam’s Specialist Camera Range, are unique to the 360-degree video surveillance market as they are the only ones certified for tough environments, indoor and outdoor. The 05MP and 12MP versions have been specifically designed to meet the needs of customers operating in demanding environments such as Food Processing, Industrial, Maritime and Ports and Safe City applications. The cameras’ resilient Stainless Steel 316 housing is manufactured for enhanced corrosion resistance. The IP66, IP67, IP68, IP69K, and NEMA 4X and 6P ratings make the enclosure fit for harsh environments, while its IK10+ rating makes it resistant to impacts of 40 joules. The NSF certification and HCV EU mark make the camera range unique, guaranteeing compliance with standards for commercial food equipment in both North America as well as Europe. The only 360-degree fisheye camera in a stainless steel housing, Oncam’s new and improved camera range is available for surface and pendant mount installations. A matching stainless steel arm allows for wall, corner and pole mounting. Evolution 05 Stainless Steel: EVO-05-SS2 Evolution 12 Stainless Steel: EVO-12-SS2
Associate recorded video footage with access control events in a single system Always get video verification of cardholder with live views of doors Access from anywhere, at anytime and on any device Compatible with leading browsers (Internet Explorer, Google Chrome, Firefox) Smart Phone App for iOS and Android
The Avigilon H4 Multisensor camera combines self-learning video analytics with exceptional coverage, featuring 3 or 4 individually-configurable sensors that can be positioned to monitor virtually any area. With 9-32 MP total resolution, it delivers broad coverage and high image detail, and uses H.265 compression technology to reduce bandwidth and storage requirements while maintaining clear images. Each camera sensor incorporates Avigilon self-learning video analytics and works with Avigilon Appearance Search™ technology, our award-winning AI video search engine.
Hikvision, the world’s leading supplier of innovative security products and solutions, has introduced new AcuSense network camera series to its EasyIP 4.0 security solutions. Featuring a strobe light and an audio alarm, the new cameras can immediately deter intruders from entering a prohibited site, further enhancing the safety of premises and property. At The Core: Faster, More Accurate Intrusion Detection Importantly, Hikvision AcuSense network cameras build on the same cutting-edge intrusion detection functionality found within the existing Hikvision EasyIP 4.0 security solutions. When a potential threat is detected by the camera, it uses its intelligent false alarm reduction technology to disregard irrelevant movements, such as rain, leaves and animals. Instead, the camera focuses on human or vehicle movement, dramatically reducing the number of false alarms for faster, more accurate intrusion detection. An Enhanced Deterrent: Strobe Lighting And AlarmOnce a potential intruder has been accurately detected, the AcuSense network camera triggers the built-in strobe light and audio alarm. This is designed to warn the intruder off before they attempt to breach the perimeter. The volume of the audio alarm and the brightness of the strobe light can be adjusted to suit the environment. Reliable Operation, Day Or NightThe AcuSense network camera range can deliver this powerful intrusion detection and prevention at all times of day or night. Powered by Hikvision DarkFighter technology, all cameras in the range deliver superior surveillance images, even in ultra-low light. Four Products To Suit Different ApplicationsThe new AcuSense network cameras are available in bullet and turret styles, and in 2MP or 4MP resolution, making a total of four different camera options available. Better Service, Greater Peace Of MindFrank Zhang, General Manager of International Product Marketing Department at Hikvision says, “AcuSense technology is already cutting-edge. By adding the strobe light and the alarm, we can now give our customers the chance to prevent incidents from happening in the first place, for even better security. We’re delighted to be able to help our customers protect their property in ever more valuable ways.” Product Model DetailsThere are four models available:• DS-2CD2346G1-I/SL: 4 MP IR Fixed Turret Network Camera• DS-2CD2326G1-I/SL: 2 MP IR Fixed Turret Network Camera• DS-2CD2T46G1-4I/SL: 4 MP IR Fixed Bullet Network Camera• DS-2CD2T26G1-4I/SL: 2 MP IR Fixed Bullet Network Camera
System Overview MXVR1004 is the new generation of mobile video recorder, it uses H.265 technology and the advantages are lowering the transmission bandwidth and saing the storage. It can support 1080P high-definition real-time recording, real-time vehicle location tracking and monitoring and the face detection. All the information such as GPS and video can be uploaded via wireless network: 3G/4G/WIFI. It has already passed EN50155/ISO16750 in order to meet the requirements of mobile use.This device can be used in kinds ofsolutions for different applications. Functions Anti-vibration- Using shock-absorbing material and structure, the new designed hard disk box can cope with varying degrees of vibration, keeping the system work normally all the time. Wide range of power supply- As the voltage output of vehicle battery changes during driving, the wide range of power supply can protect the device. 3G/4G/WIFI- Embedded with 3G/4G/WIFI module, the device can register into a public network to connect with VMS, and can send all theinformation(video/audio/alarm/gps) through wireless network. GPS- Embedded GPS module can receive location information and upload to VMS. Even when the device is offline, it can upload theinformation after it's online again and the vehicle can be tracked on the electric map of VMS. Multiple ports- With kinds of ports, like RS232, RS485, I/O, the video recorder can connect with various of accessories, such as card reader, fuelsensor, panic button and so on.system), so that the video, audio, alarm and location information can be uploaded to VMS.
Since 2011, the patented Dallmeier Panomera® multifocal sensor technology has provided comprehensive video protection for vast areas in many football stadiums, perimeters, airports and city areas all over the world. The new Panomera® series, the “Ultraline“, has exceptionally high effective resolution for these situations. Dallmeier presents the first model of the new series, the Panomera® S8 Ultraline, which delivers up to 190 megapixel at 30 fps. The Panomera® concept has revolutionized video technology: with up to eight sensors in a single camera, it is possible to capture enormous distances in unprecedented resolution quality. With fewer cameras and considerably less expense for both infrastructure and management, the total cost of ownership of video solutions are reduced significantly. At the same time, customer specifications regarding pixel density and coverage can be satisfied very precisely. Up To 26,000 sqm. Coverage With One Camera The first model of the new Ultraline series, the Ultraline S8, has an excellent dynamic range of 130 dB UWDR (effective) for an extreme Panomera® effect. This enables a resolution of 125 px/m up to a distance of 160, 104 or 82 m, enabling individuals to be recognized over the entire distance. Identification of persons (250 px/m) is supported up to a distance of 46 m depending on the model, observation (62 px/m) is possible even up to a distance of 322 m. This corresponds to a huge image space of more than 26,000 sqm. with continuous depth of field. Permanent Capture The multifocal sensor system captures and stores all regions of the image space in the highest detail resolution. At the same time, it is not important whether the operators are concentrating on a specific region in live mode (multiple detail zoom) or if regions of interest are displayed in detail based on video content analysis (multiple auto-tracking). The Panomera® recordings always include the entire area of interest and allow every operation to be analyzed. “Made in Germany” And GDPR-Ready Like all Dallmeier cameras the new Panomera® model is manufactured entirely in Germany, at the Dallmeier factory in Regensburg. This in itself is a major factor in the manufacturer’s data protection and data security strategy, since it is then impossible for unauthorized persons to gain access through “backdoors”, for example. In all, 14 functions such as the setup of private zones, People Masking or the very latest encryption-authentication technology in the processing chain of Dallmeier solutions ensure that the strict requirements of the GDPR relating to data protection and data security are met.
The Evolution ExD Cameras, part of Oncam’s Specialist Camera Range, are unique to the 360-degree video surveillance market. Both ATEX, IEC and IECEx certified, the 5MP and 12MP versions have been specifically designed to meet the needs of customers operating in hazardous environmental conditions and potentially explosive atmospheres. The cameras’ housings are manufactured in Stainless Steel 316L, for maximum robustness. The IP66, IP67 and IP68 ratings make the enclosure resistant to harsh environmental conditions. Fit for use in markets such as Offshore and Onshore Environments, Industrial and Chemical Plants, Ports and Marine Applications and Food Processing Areas, the world’s first and only 360-degree ExD camera range is available in four mounting options: Surface Mount, Wall Mount, Pole Mount and Ceiling Mount. With no moving parts, the cameras can be PoE, 12 VDC or mains powered, dependent on whether they will be used indoor, outdoor or in extreme outdoor conditions. A heater is also available in the outdoor models. For enhanced connectivity in extreme outdoor applications, single or multi-mode fibre versions are offered. Indoor: EVO-05-EIP / EVO-12-EIP (PoE) Outdoor: EVO-05-EOA / EVO-12-EOA (115V) EVO-05-EOE / EVO-12-EOE (230V) Extreme Outdoor: EVO-05-ESA / EVO-12-ESA (115V, Single Fibre Optic Mode) EVO-05-ESE / EVO-12-ESE 230V, Single Fibre Optic Mode) EVO-05-EMA / EVO-12-EMA (115V, Multi Fibre Optic Mode) EVO-05-EME / EVO-12-EME (230V, Multi Fibre Optic Mode)
Video printer products updated recently
Datacard CP80 PLUS CARD PRINTER Video Printer With Theft-deterrent Software And A Hardware Lock System
Comprehensive and robust security programs and policies are required for adequate data security Over the last decade, we have entered a new era of physical and logical access control. We are now living in an increasingly mobile world where our phones do more than just make a simple call – employees can now open doors and enter secure areas, as well as access computers, corporate data networks and associated information assets with just a single mobile device. Furthermore, the cloud, and access to cloud-based services is becoming almost a fundamental requirement for businesses. This, combined with advanced personal cell phones such as NFC-enabled ones increasingly being used beyond conventional uses, is naturally driving a change in how organizations view, deliver and manage both data and physical security, explains Alan Davies VP Sales – EMEA, Identity Assurance, HID Global. A big change pertaining to access control management is that identity no longer needs to be restricted to a single plastic card or security token. We often think about identity solely in terms of the card or token that carries it; however with more and more companies placing accessible data in the cloud and allowing employees to use NFC-enabled smartphones for physical access purposes in the workplace, ‘identity’ is now taking many different shapes. For example, a smartphone being used as a ‘digital key’ to open doors and tag-in to work locations eliminates the need for employees to carry any other credentials. Of course, this raises questions about how to ensure that any assigned identities can be trusted. Fortunately, it is possible to manage virtualized credentials in the business environment. Take mobile for example. This can be done by implementing a trusted identity framework that creates a secure boundary within communications between the devices, such as when a smartphone interacts with an NFC reader or NFC enabled end-point device. It acts as a secure ‘vault’, that delivers the agreed corporate security policy to the devices in use. If this is accepted, then it is deemed to be trusted and the user is allowed access. Another benefit is that NFC-enabled physical access control makes it easier to track who is entering and exiting monitored access points throughout the workplace. Employers can then be assured that all endpoints and all of the systems in between are valid before allowing entry into the building. Data Protection and Management For organizations investing in the cloud, in order for them to unlock its true value, they need to address exactly where Security strategies should be customized to fit an organizations unique data protection needs sensitive data is stored and consider the user risk factor including the way in which they wish to access the information. Though the rise of the cloud for enterprise data storage and application-hosting has changed the way IT professionals interact with their users, networks and data, the fundamentals of data protection remain the same. What many organizations fail to realize is that a one-size-fits-all approach to data protection is insufficient. Traditionally, enterprises have focused on securing the network perimeter, and relied on static passwords to authenticate users internally, within the firewall or externally via a virtual private network (VPN). However, taking into account the diverse nature of modern threats – from Advanced Persistent Threats (APTs) to ad hoc hacking and the internal risks that come with the mass adoption of BYOD– organizations are increasingly re-evaluating and re-assessing their IT security strategy to meet changing needs. Two-factor authentication measures have typically been confined to physical devices like one-time password (OTP) tokens and display cards, but thanks to a variety of technological advancements these are being replaced by ‘soft tokens’ that can be held directly on the user device such as a cell phone or tablet, or alternatively as browser-based tokens. Additionally, these mobile tokens can be combined with cloud app single-sign-on capabilities, to fulfill the same function of more classic two-factor authentication models while also providing convenient streamlined access to multiple cloud apps – all from one device. Merging Management of Logical and Physical Security Infrastructure Ultimately, the security landscape is constantly evolving and mobile access control as well remote data access to cloud based applications, is growing in significance, making the right security investment a more important decision than ever before. It is critical for enterprises to have an extremely secure mobile and cloud identity environment so that transactions between the employee-owned phones or corporate-issued devices and the door they intend to unlock, or network they access, are conducted in a secure manner. Merging the management of both logical and physical security infrastructures, so that their operations are conducted via one platform, is integral to keeping pace with the paradigm shift caused by technological advancements such as NFC. Furthermore, by deploying just one security device for both logical and physical access control , enterprises will not only realize cost savings, but will gain greater security control, as there will be a single point of revocation for all access rights. Building security systems that take into account the many routes to confidential data – whether at the physical door, on the network or in the cloud – is essential. Only by implementing comprehensive and robust and layered security programmes and policies that cover all three areas, while allowing for new technologies and applications, will organizations be confident that their data is adequately secure.
Resolution quality must be considered when assessing surveillance effectiveness Surveillance cameras are becoming more and more commonplace, especially in busy metropolitan locales. Police and detectives hope to reduce crime rates by keeping a watchful eye on civilians but CCTV has only been helpful in solving a small percentage of crimes. Mike Lewis, Country Manager UK for CCTV manufacturer MOBOTIX AG, highlights key considerations for improving the efficiency of existing surveillance systems.In May of 2008, Detective Chief Inspector Mike Neville, head of Scotland Yard's Visual Images, Identifications and Detections Office (Viido) became the UK's first senior police officer to challenge the misconception around CCTV's role in reducing crime. Speaking at Security Document World Conference in London, the Chief Inspector said: "Billions of pounds have been spent on kit, but no thought has gone into how the police are going to use the images and how they will be used in court. It's been an utter fiasco." Neville also pointed out that only 3 per cent of London's street robberies had been solved using CCTV images. A low figure considering the capital is one of the most densely populated areas of CCTV coverage anywhere in the world. Identifying problems with existing CCTV surveillance systems Mike Lewis, UK Country Manager for CCTV manufacturer Mobotix AG believes that the problem stems from a fundamental issue of image quality. "For many organizations CCTV is treated as a ‘check-box' item with little thought given to how a CCTV installation can help the police solve crimes. Criminals are not stupid and a deterrent is simply not enough; the technology has to be able to gather evidence to help the police secure convictions." Lewis points out that the majority of CCTV installations in the UK still use old analog technology with barely a fifth of the resolution found in a basic camera phone. "If a CCTV system, say covering a street outside a jewellers', captures a car pulling up and three men brandishing shotguns marching into the shop - unless you have the resolution to capture the license plate, or some distinguishing features of each masked robber, or audio capture to get a voice print - the system is pretty worthless." Mandating changes in surveillance video resolution requirements The industry also is "less than opaque" when it comes to selling CCTV in his view. "Many vendors will play down high resolution as not necessary or too expensive to implement without actually explaining that it is exactly these high resolution images and audio capture that will help police make successful prosecution where a grainy image would simply be thrown out of court." "Billions of pounds have been spent on kit, but no thought has gone into how the police are going to use the images and how they will be used in court" Lewis points to the continent as an example of where UK CCTV market needs to learn from. In France for example, under anti-terrorism laws pioneered after the 7/7 tube bombings in London, all government building and high risk areas are legally required to have CCTV of a high resolution and retain data for up to 30 days. In Germany, all banks are required to deploy high resolution CCTV to monitor customers, staff and financial transactions in every branch. [It will be very useful to define what is classified as "high resolution" or the minimum resolutions that are acceptable in these countries] MOBOTIX, which only sells fully-digital high resolution CCTV camera systems believes that the potential of CCTV to reduce crime won't be fulfilled unless either the government, police or even third parties such as insurers, licensing boards or trade associations insist that end users deploy a better resolution capture, coverage and video storage and retrieval. "There will be another wave of CCTV installation heading up to the Olympics, so as a nation, we have a perfect opportunity to set a CCTV standard that meets the needs of police, local government and end users to help us reduce crime and secure more prosecution off the back of CCTV evidence,"comments Lewis. Lewis believes CCTV would be able to help solve more crimes if they had higher resolutions "The technology is not the barrier and newer CCTV systems with hemispheric (360 degree) fields of view will allow end users to actually deploy fewer security cameras while maintaining better resolution and wider coverage - the problem is still trying to persuade people that CCTV can catch criminals and not just scare them away." Optimising CCTV for solving and prevention of crime Lewis offers some constructive suggestions on how to improve CCTV's effectiveness as a crime prevention and evidence gathering tool. "There are an estimated 4 million CCTV cameras in the UK but where they all are, what they record and accessibility to these video archives is mostly unknown - having a register of CCTV for use by the police would help them to quickly gather post incident evidence." The idea of CCTV built into the environment was the theme of the 200 Secured by Design' (SBD) initiative that has been adopted by parts of the building industry to promote crime prevention measures like CCTV in development design. The initiative was endorsed by the Association of Chief Police Officers (ACPO), and has the backing of the Home Office Crime Reduction Unit. However, for police gathering information after an incident, there is no easy way to locate CCTV installations in any given area. The industry also is "less than transparent" when it comes to selling CCTV in his view Most CCTV systems installed in the UK use a centralised approach. Each surveillance camera is effectively dumb with the image processing, access to footage and storage taking place at a remote location. In smaller environments, this could be a DVR simply recording everything on a 24-hour loop. In larger campuses or city centres, this is often a dedicated control room monitored 24 hours a day. Instead Lewis argues that a decentralised approach that places more intelligence into the CCTV camera would allow greater accessibility by third parties such as the police and emergency services. "With a decentralised system, private companies could allow the police to quickly add their local cameras into a centrally managed grid." In this method, if an incident occurs, the police CCTV control center could patch an instant video feed from the nearest available CCTV camera. With a decentralised approach, each CCTV camera becomes an access point on an IP network and can be shared by multiple agencies in a more cost effective approach. "This might sound a bit hi-tech, but it is technically possible," explains Lewis. To give an analogy, when the police receive a 999 call, the dispatcher is automatically informed of the location of the caller from the Caller Line Identification system which cross references a database of addresses of each of the 25 million public and private landlines installed in the UK. "A similar system where the police type in a post code and are presented with secure access to video feeds from all decentralised CCTV installations in an area would be a potentially society changing tool for fighting crime." High risk areas in France were legally required to have high resolution CCTV following London Tube bombings Considerations for realising CCTV's full security potential Lewis also believes: "All CCTV cameras should have a minimum mandated image quality with all information stored in a digital format for a minimum of 7 days that can be easily accessed by the police for evidence gathering." Many police forces around the country already have voluntary guidelines for business deploying CCTV and several have made CCTV installation a condition of alcohol or gaming licences. However this policy has successfully been challenged by landlords and upheld by Information Commissioner as potentially in conflict with the data protection act. Unfortunately, Lewis believes for any of these measures to work, there needs to be stronger backing from the government: "There is obviously a fear of creating an oppressive surveillance society but we have regulation for other areas like fire prevention, road safety, disabled access and a host of other health and safety issues - why CCTV, which has the potential to protect lives, is treated differently is a complete mystery to me." Mike LewisUK ManagerMobotix AG
Bandwidth is an important consideration for CCTV systems to reach their full potential Most surveillance systems today transmit data over IP networks. As manufacturers continue to improve the capabilities of CCTV systems, the amount of traffic traveling on a network becomes increasingly large. Bandwidth is a key consideration in managing surveillance systems and ensuring their full potential is reached. In this article, Bosch discusses the importance of bandwidth and how to estimate the amount of bandwidth needed for a particular CCTV system. What is bandwidth and why is it important? Modern-day CCTV systems increasingly use IP networks to send video from one point to another (for example, from a camera to a Video Management System typically running on a PC). IP networks are an attractive medium for transporting video because one cable can carry the video from many cameras. These networks also serve a multi-functional purpose because the same cable can carry video as well as two-way audio, alarm signals, relay signals, PTZ commands, and serial data. With Power over Ethernet, the cable can even carry power to the camera. This greatly simplifies the multitude of cables usually required. However, the network is limited by the amount of traffic it can carry - known as bandwidth, which is measured in bits per second (bps). The table below shows the three kinds of star-topology Ethernet networks in common use today. Name Also known as Bandwidth 10Base-T Standard Ethernet 10 Mbps (Megabits per second) 100Base-T Fast Ethernet 100 Mbps 1000Base-T Gigabit Ethernet 1,000 Mbps or 1 Gbps Video over IP consumes a large amount of bandwidth. As a rough guide, one camera might consume between 100 kbps and 2 Mbps - compare this to audio, which typically consumes only 80 kbps. This explains the immediate success of Voice over IP. The factors that affect bandwidth consumption are described in the table below. Factor Description Examples Video compression method Typically temporal or spatial compression MPEG-4, M-JPEG, Wavelet, and MPEG-2 Frame rate Images per second 1-30 IPS Image resolution The number of horizontal and vertical pixels QCIF, CIF, 2CIF, 4CIF (also known as full D1) Scene activity level The amount of activity in the camera's field of view Low, medium, and high Quiet time The fraction of time where there is no movement (important for temporal compression algorithms like MPEG-4 because neglibible bandwidth is consumed during quiet time) 8:00 pm - 6:00 am Monday - Friday, all day Saturday and Sunday, equates to about 50% quiet time If you run out of bandwidth on your network, you will start to experience the following: Video artefacts (e.g., blocks in MPEG and M-JPEG, and increased fuzziness in Wavelet) Frames may get dropped, making the video appear choppy The video resolution may drop from 4CIF to 2 CIF or even CIF, making the picture less clear The video may freeze entirely and lose the connection temporarily What is the relationship between bandwidth and disk storage? A single IP network cable can carry video from many surveillance cameras and also carry out multiple functions They are directly related. If video is being transmitted at a certain bit-rate across a network to be stored, then it will consume disk space at exactly the same rate. For example, a 1 Mbps video stream will use 1 Mb (Megabit) of space in one second, or about 1/8 = 0.125 Megabytes per second, which equates to 0.125 x 3,600 = 450 Megabytes per hour (about 11 GB per day or 75 GB per week). How do I know how much bandwidth I need? This is an excellent question, particularly because it is unanswerable with any certainty. As explained earlier, it depends on so many factors that you can really only estimate your bandwidth and/or rate of disk-space consumption. This initial guess is based on your experience with previous projects and it is useful - but the best way to predict your needs is to run the actual test. For example, consider planning an IP-based CCTV system for a school. How much bandwidth will the network need to carry for approximately 16 cameras, and how much disk space is required for seven days of recording? View larger image Graph showing results gained by capping the bit rate Capping the bit rate You can ‘cap' the bit rate of each IP camera or encoder so that it never uses more than that specified amount. Note that when capped, the actual bit-rate at any particular moment may be well below the ‘cap' limit. Advantage: Once you know the available disk space, you are guaranteed to get a predictable number of days of video. This is especially important for regulated environments. It is also good news for IT departments who want to know how much you are going to stress the network. Disadvantage: To not exceed the allowed bit rate, the IP camera or encoder has to do something if it finds itself over-stretched. Normally it has the option to either drop some of the frames or reduce the video resolution of the frames - but this can be an issue when the video quality you need has to be degraded under any circumstances. Unlimited bit rate View larger imageGraph showing the results of unlimited bit rate You can let the IP camera or encoder help itself to whatever bandwidth it needs. Advantage: Image quality never deteriorates. Disadvantage: Under certain conditions, the peak load on the IP network may cause problems. This "help yourself" policy also may allow disk space to be consumed faster than you anticipated, so you may not have as many days of video as you expected. Summary With conventional VCRs, it is easy to predict the amount of disk space required for a specified number of days of recording time. With DVRs and IP-based CCTV, it can also be easy to predict (by capping) - as long as you are comfortable with the possibility that the video quality may degrade under certain circumstances. If you overestimate your bit rates, you will end up paying for more storage than you need. The best way to predict your real needs is to pilot a small IP surveillance system (perhaps just one camera). Run it for a short while, then review the video and make any necessary adjustments. This is the most reliable way to get what you need and plan your infrastructure accordingly. In addition to better estimating, it is also important to remember the enormous value of Recording at the Edge, which keeps video off the network for recording. In such a scenario, the network is only used for live streaming and playback.View the Bandwidth quick reference guide Bosch Security Systems
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