VIVOTEK FD9187-HT is indoor dome network camera equipped with a full HD sensor enabling resolution of 2560 x 1944 at 30 fps. And FD9187-HT also supports standard 1920x1080 resolution at 60 frames per second. Featuring VIVOTEK SNV and WDR Pro technology, FD9187-HT is capable of capturing high quality image whether in high contrast or low light environment. The FD9187-HT offers remote focus lens for different user scenario. IR illuminators are equipped with 50 meter effective range for better night visibility. For indoor applications, PIR sensor is built-in to detect unexpected events. Employing VIVOTEK's Smart Stream III technology and H.265 codec support, the FD9187-HT reduces bandwidth up to 90%* while keeping great image quality. Additionally, powered by VIVOTEK Smart Motion Detection technology, the FE9187-HT can learn how to differentiate between the motion of people and objects, which make it enable to reduce the false alarms and have higher accuracy.
The ConteraCMR® NVR Appliance is designed to offer powerful IP recording in an affordable, compact chassis. It is equipped with an on-board 8 or 16 channel PoE switch, with a recording capacity of up to 24 channels, allowing for Plug and Play connection with Arecont Vision and ONVIF cameras or RTSP video streams. With full integration to ConteraWS® (Web Services), the NVR Appliance offers centralized user management, single sign-on convenience, mobile apps and a web client that allows for easy remote connection to your recorders. Network setup is fast and easy using ConteraWS and eliminates the need for port forwarding or DDNS. The ConteraCMR NVR Appliance runs on a secure Linux® OS and comes preloaded with ConteraVMS® Server software as a turn-key solution.
The Evolution Stainless Steel cameras, part of Oncam’s Specialist Camera Range, are unique to the 360-degree video surveillance market as they are the only ones certified for tough environments, indoor and outdoor. The 05MP and 12MP versions have been specifically designed to meet the needs of customers operating in demanding environments such as Food Processing, Industrial, Maritime and Ports and Safe City applications. The cameras’ resilient Stainless Steel 316 housing is manufactured for enhanced corrosion resistance. The IP66, IP67, IP68, IP69K, and NEMA 4X and 6P ratings make the enclosure fit for harsh environments, while its IK10+ rating makes it resistant to impacts of 40 joules. The NSF certification and HCV EU mark make the camera range unique, guaranteeing compliance with standards for commercial food equipment in both North America as well as Europe. The only 360-degree fisheye camera in a stainless steel housing, Oncam’s new and improved camera range is available for surface and pendant mount installations. A matching stainless steel arm allows for wall, corner and pole mounting. Evolution 05 Stainless Steel: EVO-05-SS2 Evolution 12 Stainless Steel: EVO-12-SS2
Increase safety and reduce risk on board your transit vehicles with March Networks® RideSafe MT Series IP Recorders. These all-IP units deliver highly-reliable video surveillance recording and management in a compact, rugged design that is ideal for mid-sized vehicles – like student and patient shuttles and paratransit buses. Available in 4-channel and 6-channel models, the RideSafe MT Series solution enables operators to capture everything that’s happening on the bus, inside and out. Whether you have one or a thousand vehicles, this plug-and-play recorder can operate as a standalone unit programmable through embedded software, or be remotely managed and monitored daily using March Networks Command™ for Transit video management software. Video from the recorder can also be integrated with existing CAD and AVL systems and mobile routers. Key RideSafe MT Series features include: Front panel LEDs for easy recorder diagnostics, including operational, recording and video export status Embedded Linux OS, to ensure reliable and secure video recording Real-time health monitoring, alerting operators to camera, recorder and network issues before they affect performance Vehicle metadata integration from CAD/AVL systems and accelerometers for accurate re-enactments, driver monitoring and investigations Configurable recording policies based on schedule, motion, incident/event and other user-definable variables Powerful video management software, providing the advanced tools and features needed to manage entire fleets Automated video and data extraction over WiFi or 4G networks Extended thermal range (ETR) models available
The Evolution 180 Outdoor Camera is built upon Oncam’s expertise and heritage on 360-degree technology. It is specifically designed for applications that require a dewarped panoramic view of an outdoor scene, without blind spots, from a single sensor camera. The 12MP high-resolution sensor and the built-in 3D dewarped panoramic video provides industry leading Panoramic+ views. The true day/night functionality allows images to be produced in all lighting conditions, including additional IR lighting. The camera is IP66, IP67, IP68, IP69K and IK10+ rated, making it a robust design. Its versatile enclosure enables wall and pendant mounting, while the integrated adjustable mounting allows for an angling of up to 45°. When angled, Oncam’s Angle Compensation Technology (ACT) corrects the view, straightening vertical lines in the scene.
System OverviewWith upgraded H.265 encoding technology, Dahua Lite series network camera has efficient video encoding capacity, which saves bandwidth and storage space. This camera adopts the latest starlight technology and displays better color image in the condition of low illumination. It supports SD card storage, dust-proof function, waterproof function and vandal-proof function, complying to the standards of IP67 and IK10 (Supported by some select models). Functions Smart CodecWith advanced scene-adaptive rate control algorithm, Dahua smart encoding technology realizes the higher encoding efficiency than H.265 and H.264, provides high-quality video, and reduces the cost of storage and transmission. WDRWith advanced Wide Dynamic Range (WDR) technology, Dahua network camera provides clear details in the environment of strong brightness contrast. The bright and dark area can get clear video even in high brightness environment or with backlight shadow. StarlightDahua Starlight technology mainly applies to the environment of low illuminance, and it can provide clear colorful video. Even in the environment of ultra-low illuminance, the technology can guarantee the good image effect. IVSWith advanced video algorithm, Dahua IVS technology supports intelligent functions, such as tripwire and intrusion. Protection (IP67, IK10, wide voltage)IP67: The camera passes a series of strict test on dust and soak. It has dust-proof function, and the enclosure can works normal after soaking in 1 m deep water for 30 minutes.IK10: The enclosure can stand the punch more than 5 times from a 5 kg hammer falling from a height of 40 cm (Impact energy is 20J).Wide voltage: The camera allows ±30% input voltage tolerance (wide voltage range), and it is widely applied to outdoor environment with instable voltage.
Hanwha Techwin’s Wisenet PNM-9000VD multi-sensor/multi-directional camera provides quality images and modular lens configuration at an affordable price. This camera supports 30fps image capture and true 120 dB WDR without compromising frame rate for each of its two 5MP sensors. Each sensor has its own Wisenet 5 chip, providing a full suite of built-in video analytics including loitering, directional detection, fog detection, tampering, motion detection and objects entering or exiting an area.
VIVOTEK’s VAST 2 is an easy to use IP video management software (VMS). To meet the real-world needs of users, it comes with exciting advancements such as easy operation on single or multiple monitors, custom layout to accommodate both corridor and panorama orientations, rapid export of multi-channel video and the acquisition of VCA analytics & cybersecurity attack events from VIVOTEK cameras and substations (such as NVRs) in a hierarchical system structure. In the new version update of VIVOTEK’s video management software VAST 2, several advanced user-centered functionalities will be unveiled. The new features include the Deep-Learning Technology Smart Search II, Cybersecurity Management Solution, and License Plate Recognition Integration. With this update, users can enjoy the intuitive interface of VAST 2 while achieving a higher level of management efficiency. Three new user-oriented benefits will be highlighted in VAST 2： Smart Search II Building on Deep-Learning Video Content Analytics, the Smart Search II of VAST 2 allows users to quickly search for specific objects and people in the specified region. While enabling People Detection feature, only people-based activities will serve as event triggers. The security operator no longer needs to search through extensive footage for critical videos, thus improving both efficiency and effectiveness. Cybersecurity Management Solution Offering the complete end-to-end cybersecurity protection, the new VAST 2 is fully integrated with VIVOTEK cameras and NVRs and becomes a powerful cybersecurity central management site. The protection includes Instant Alert Notifications, allowing users to receive notifications automatically, and the Cyber Risk Dashboard to visually identify common types of cyber-attacks. In addition, users can filter attack logs according to a range of criteria, making it quicker to find abnormal events and take necessary actions to minimize risks. License Plate Recognition Integration Now, the new VAST 2 is fully integrated with VIVOTEK’s LPR/ Automatic Number-Plate Recognition (ANPR) camera, IB9387-LPR. Users can see the live images with selected information, such as confidence level or black list status, which can in turn become a trigger source in Alarm Management, making it easy to intelligently manage license plate data.
IDIS has extended its award-winning DirectIP® camera range with the introduction of a new flagship 2MP 36x Lightmaster IR PTZ outdoor-ready camera for fast and precise pan/tilt/zoom performance.The new DC-S6283HRX Lightmaster builds on the specification of IDIS’s successful PTZ models, with a high-grade lens combined with advanced sensor technology and finely tuned, client-side image processing, allowing the capture of vivid, true color video in extremely low light conditions. Excellent performance at long distances, with minimum motion blur, makes the DC-S6283HRX ideal for perimeters, shopping centers, stadia, outdoor spaces and public area applications.The camera benefits from IDIS’ signature true plug-and-play, one-click configuration and features 36x optical zoom, IR up to 350 metres, true wide dynamic range (WDR), digital image stabilization (DIS), a built-in heater and a vandal proof casing.“Designed for 24/7 accurate pan/tilt/zoom operation this new Lightmaster PTZ camera delivers unparalleled performance and exceptional detail when zooming. The camera is equipped with a variety of intelligent features and can move between pre-set positions and zoom in automatically in response to detected events. The result is maximum protection for a wide range of applications,” said James Min, Managing Director, IDIS Europe.The user experience is enhanced with IDIS Smart UX Controls, which is an award-winning, advanced and simple to use interface featuring intuitive slingshot and rubber-band style controls. Operators can smoothly and seamlessly follow moving objects in real-time with ground-breaking accuracy by panning images at different speeds and in different directions - literally without lifting a finger - by using a CTRL button and mouse combination.The camera uses H.264 and H.265 combined with IDIS Intelligent Codec to deliver significant bandwidth and storage savings and benefits from low Power over Ethernet (PoE) energy consumption.The risk of gaps in footage is eliminated with IDIS Smart Failover. In the event of network instability, the camera automatically records to an integral 256GB SD card and transfers data to the network video recorder (NVR) once connection is restored, which avoids the need for engineer call outs to retrieve footage.“We are listening and responding to customer demand with our new 2MP PTZ Lightmaster camera, providing an easy to deploy, low-storage and bandwidth solution for wide area coverage and perimeter detection,” said James Min, Managing Director of IDIS Europe. “It’s particularly suited to town center and city surveillance, stadia, outdoor retail parks, manufacturing and logistics sites and high-security perimeter applications where outstanding performance and ease-of-use combined with a low total cost of ownership are becoming essential.”
AI series products adopt the most advanced AI technologies, including deep learning algorithms that primarily target people and vehicles, which provides higher flexibility and accuracy for end-users. This enables the Dahua AI series to offer various advanced applications such as Face Recognition, Metadata, traffic data statistics, etc. The complete lineup of Dahua AI includes network (PTZ) cameras, network video recorders, servers, and more devices. Beyond seeing the world, the power of AI allows devices to perceive the environment and understand the world in a better way. System Overview Dahua PTZ AI network camera adopts advanced CNN deep learning algorithms to support face recognition with high accuracy. The Dual 4MP Starlight Smart Capture Camera consists of panoramic camera and PTZ camera. Panoramic camera captures panoramas, and then PTZ camera takes detailed snapshots of objects and keeps tracking objects after rule violations occur. This camera possess wide monitor range and PFA algorithm that can always present a clear, focused image while zooming. Functions Dual PTZ systemPanoramic camera and Detail camera of the dual PTZ system can be adjusted horizontally and vertically. Face RecognitionOnce facial features are extracted from captured faces, they are stored in a database where they can be easily searched and compared against other images. Once a successful match is found, the system outputs the result. The Dahua Face Recognition camera supports a built-in database that stores up to 10,000 facial images, helping the camera achieve realtime face capture and comparison. Starlight TechnologyFor challenging low-light applications, Dahua's Starlight Ultra-low Light Technology offers best-in-class light sensitivity, capturing color details in low light down to 0.001 lux. The camera uses a set of optical features to balance light throughout the scene, resulting in clear images in dark environments. PFA TechnologyPFA technology has innovatively introduced new methods of judgment to ensure the accuracy and predictability of the direction of subject distance adjustment. The result is a set of advanced focusing algorithms. PFA ensures clarity of the image throughout the process of zooming and shortens focus time. The realization of PFA technology substantially improves user experience and increases product value. MetadataMetadata is feature attribute information extracted from a target object which can be used for data retrieval. There are four kinds of metadata supported by Dahua PTZ AI camera: human face, human body, motor vehicle and non-motor vehicle metadata. Facial information includes gender, age, glasses, masks, beards, etc. Human body information includes hat, top, top color, bottom, bottom color, bag, etc. Motor vehicle information includes plate color, type, vehicle color, sunshield, ornament, calling, seatbelt, smoking, annual inspection sticker, etc. Non-motor vehicle information includes type, color, top type, top color, people number, etc. Smart trackingHuman, motor vehicle, and non-motor vehicle, or their combinations can be set as objects. Once the objects selected trigger detection rules (like tripwire and intrusion), the detail camera will track them automatically. Perimeter ProtectionAutomatically filtering out false alarms caused by animals, rustling leaves, bright lights, etc. Enables system to act secondary recognition for the targets. Improving alarm accuracy. InteroperabilityThe camera conforms to the ONVIF (Open Network Video Interface Forum) specifications, ensuring interoperability between network video products regardless of manufacturer.
VIVOTEK ‘s new CC9381-HV is a 180-degress panoramic network camera, featuring its compact design and high-quality image capability, making it suitable for a wide array of both indoor and outdoor environments, such as boutiques, convenience stores, banks, schools and homes. Along with offering amazing 180° HFOV coverage, CC9381-HV offers up to 20 fps at 5-Megapixel resolution (30 fps at 5MP with WDR Off). This Panoramic Network Camera also incorporates other value-added features.With IR built-in 180° IR illuminators up to 15 meters, no matter day or night, light or dark, the new CC9381-HV always provides complete video security. Further, due to the SNV technology, areas of low light visibility are no longer an issue either. Equipped with WDR Pro technology, the CC9381-HV enable the camera to maintain optimal image quality and unparalleled visibility in high contrast lighting environments, as well as combined both H.265 and VIVOTEK Smart Stream III, it can reduce bandwidth and storage consumption more than 90% compared to traditional H.264 without smart streaming. In addition to its versatile coverage and features, the CC9381-HV is safeguarded by Trend Micro IoT Security to provide users with higher levels of network protection.
Consider your security needs met. The experts in thermal and perimeter security have packed everything you need into one affordable, easy-to-install camera. The FLIR Saros DH-390 Dome Camera includes IR and visible illuminators, plus Lepton thermal sensors to allow you to see in any condition. And with high-resolution video, you’ll never miss a thing.
Hikvision has launched a new Fisheye IP camera series (DS-2CD63X5G0) with AI. This 360˚ panoramic camera uses the deep learning technology to deliver a more accurate heat map functionality. It gives an enhanced view of its surroundings – and is especially useful in large retail applications. The cameras’ 360˚ panoramic image of the scene before it, means the user can see a wider area much more clearly. This is enhanced by independent control of a three-way infrared light, which can be separately configured to reduce the amount of ‘reflective’ wall space. This improves image quality, especially when placed in a corner location. The deep learning algorithm focuses only on human targets, improving the accuracy of the heat map functionality. This means users can see ‘hotspots’ in a space, showing areas that people visit, or pass, the most. An added layer to the heat map visualization makes it a lot clearer than previous technologies, presenting more information in a clearer way. Despite the high quality of the images, the cameras boast extremely light bandwidth, saving storage and costs by using H265+ compression technology. They also support Multiple Expansion Modes, with up to 15 live view display modes available, designed for three different mounts. This means they can be more easily adjusted to meet the users’ exact preferences, and improve their browsing experience. Other features include: New Immervision lens (only 12MP, 1.29mm lens model) Up to 12MP resolution 120 dB WDR Up to 15m IR range Built-in microphone and speaker Smart features: 6 behavior analyses, and 3 exception detections IK10/IP66 available. The cameras will be a useful addition to retail solutions, with heat mapping helping owners to understand customers’ psychology and identify which products attract the most attention on the shop floor. They can also be used in other large area applications, like train stations and public squares. The series will also be a boon to installers, with the ability to achieve monitoring which has no ‘dead angles’, making the solution more efficient and reducing installation costs. “We pride ourselves on continually advancing our technology and how it is implemented”, says Peter Guan, Director of Channel Sales and Marketing for Hikvision Europe. “This new Fisheye camera will provide clear flow information that will help users to make the right business decisions to make their spaces much more profitable.”
The Evolution 180 Indoor camera is built upon Oncam’s expertise and heritage on 360-degree technology. It’s been specifically designed for applications that require a dewarped panoramic view of a scene, without blind spots, from a single sensor camera. The 5:2 Panoramic+ stream provides a perfect balance between image quality and bandwidth efficiency. In addition, when mounting on an angle, Oncam’s Angle Compensation Technology (ACT) corrects the view, straightening vertical lines in the scene. The true day/night functionality allows images to be produced in all lighting conditions, including additional IR lighting. The camera is provided with three different mounting back boxes (0°, 25° and 45°), which also double up as pendant mount. EVO-180-WID (White) / EVO-180-WJD (Black)
Z3 Smart Camera Home Security System is the ideal solution for the small to mid-size home owner who is looking for a comprehensive smart home security system with boundless expandability. With so many sensors and accessories out in the market, how can a user find what they need to start off with? The multifunctional Z3 Smart Camera Security System provides an all-in-one solution with built-in basics, including 1080p HD Camera, PIR motion, temperature, humidity, and ambient lux light sensors, and two-way clear voice intercom system with echo cancellation feature. Z3 is compatible with RF, ZigBee and Z-Wave accessories, supporting up to 160 wireless sensors, to create endless possibilities to help users to create comprehensive smart home security. Add on voice prompt, loud siren, and backup battery, Z3 makes it possible to provide comprehensive smart home security services, including remote management, home security, live visual monitoring, home automation, energy management and emergency monitoring, designed to bring all-around convenience, comfort and safety. Z3 brings a complete and cost-effective smart home solution for users to experience a secure, and comfortable lifestyle. Features Communication Path: IP (Ethernet), WiFi, 3G/4G Built-in Protocol Options: RF, ZigBee, Z-Wave Two area configurations, supports up to 160 zones Alarm event reporting via CID/SIA Email / SMS /Push Notification via Cloud Server Camera: 1920x1080p high-resolution with 152° diagonal wide-angle lens Temperature Sensor: detects temperature from -10°C~ 50°C (14°F~ 122°F) Humidity Sensor: humidity range 0 ~ 100%RH PIR Motion Sensor: 7m range @ 100° degrees Ambient Light Sensor: detects light lux levels Home Security capabilities Security Visual Verification and Real-time Monitoring & Reporting ZigBee and Z-Wave based home automation capabilities Energy Management capabilities 24/7 Environment Emergency Monitoring Built-in siren, voice prompt, microSD slot Remote management via Smartphone App and Web browser Specifications ZigBee Protocol: ZigBee Pro HA 1.2, 2.4GHz Z-Wave Protocol: Z-Wave 868.40MHz (EU) / 908.40MHz (US) RF Frequencies: 433 MHz / 868MHz Wi-Fi Module: 802.11 b/g/ n 4G Frequencies: 2100 / 2600 / 1900 / 1800 / 900 / 850 / 700MHz Power Supply: 12V/2A, 100~240VAC Backup Battery: 7.2V, 1600mA NiMh rechargeable battery pack Backup Battery Life: 15 hours* Siren: 95dB @ 1m Memory Card Slot: MicroSD card Operating Temperature: -10° to 45°C (14°F to 113°F) Operating Humidity: Up to 85% non-condensing
960 hrs max playback, VHS, 2 hrs min playback, Real Time / Timelapse / Event recording, 180 sec sec rewind time, 350 TVL resolution, Ground contact closure Alarm input, Open collector, NTSC, 0.5 to 1 Vp-p 75 ohms unbalanced, 1 Vp-p 75 ohms unbalanced, T120/T160, 360 x 90 x 289, 4 kg, 17, 0 ~ +40Add to Compare
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SourceSecurity.com’s Expert Panel covered a lot of ground in 2016 about a variety of topics in our Roundtable discussions. The very most-clicked-on Roundtable discussion in 2016 was about how to choose between a cloud-based system and a server-based system. Other hot topics that made the Top-10 list of Roundtable discussions included edge-based video storage, the challenges of commoditization, and mistakes customers make when buying and installing security systems. Here is a listing of the Top 10 Expert Panel Roundtable discussions posted in 2016 at SourceSecurity.com, along with a “sound bite” from each discussion, and links back to the full articles. Thanks to everyone who contributed to Expert Panel Roundtable in 2016, including the quotable panelists named below! 1. What factors should a customer consider when choosing between a cloud-based system and a server-based security system? "Invariably the choices will be driven by security processes in place within the corporate environment and by ensuring the remote system is as impenetrable as the corporate network. Both options potentially leave the corporate network vulnerable to a determined cyber attacker, so the systems and access points to the network need to be sufficiently hardened to deter or prevent attacks.” [John Davies] 2. What is the most unusual application of surveillance cameras you have seen recently? "The most unusual application I’ve seen is the use of 360-degree fisheye cameras mounted on mobile poles for security along a marathon route. The poles were mounted on mobile units that contained power and communications infrastructure. Multiple mobile units were driven and placed along the route so that the entire route was constantly under surveillance. " [Jumbi Edulbehram] 3. What is the biggest mistake you see your customers make when it comes to buying or installing security or surveillance systems? "Too many businesses fail to take full advantage of the breadth of services available for maximizing tools like remote diagnostic services, for example, which allow customer service teams to regularly and proactively check equipment quality and make repairs remotely." [Joe Oliveri] A number of major security companies are offering cloud video surveillance solutions apart from the traditional server-based systems, but which is best for the customer? 4. How many megapixels are enough? At what point does additional resolution not matter, or not make economic sense? "The industry commonly holds that 20 pixels/foot is enough for general surveillance, 40 pixels/foot is the minimum for facial recognition and license plate identification, and 80 pixels/foot is used for higher detail like reading logos, names embroidered on a shirt, etc. " [Jason Spielfogel] 5. What is the value of edge-based storage and in what specific applications? "Recording at the edge frees up network bandwidth and PC processing power, allowing users to view and manage video feeds and store applicable images for later use or transfer to the network when necessary. " [Dave Poulin] 6. How can security integrators replace revenue in the age of commoditization? "The integrator community needs to learn to embrace what hundreds of other contractor businesses have. They need to improve their predictable cash flow and margin by offering contracted services. Call it what you like – RMR, managed services, monitoring – the description makes no difference. The integrator community simply needs to get off their butt and make it happen. " [Bill Bozeman] 7. How successful was ISC West 2016? Did it meet your expectations? "It was unanimous that 2016 ISC West was the best show we have participated in Arecont Vision history! Activity on the first two days was especially strong with Systems Integrators, Dealers, Distributors, End Users, and A&E/Consultants. These people all came to see our new product line and were especially interested to see the product performance improvements and ease of installation and setup." [Scott Schafer] More of us are depending on social media smart phone apps as a source of information, providing new levels of immediacy that dovetail well into security, specifically in areas of emergency notification 8. What are the physical security challenges of "safe cities" applications, and how is the market meeting those challenges? "One of the challenges is, of course, to make systems from different manufacturers work together. Interoperability is important not only from an operator’s point of view, but also in how cities and their internal divisions should respond to incidents reported by the security systems. " [Per Björkdahl] 9. How should integrators/installers differentiate themselves or make themselves stand out in today’s market? "In today's market, it's all about customer service. Almost every integrator has good product – and most of these products do a lot of the same things – but what sets integrators/installers apart is the level of value-added support they are providing to their accounts. Increased support through training, follow-up, open communication and keeping them informed on emerging technologies can really speak to the needs that end users have and why they will remain loyal.” [Mitchell Kane] 10. What role can social media play in the security marketplace and/or as a tool to promote better security in general? "Social media has weaved its way into our daily lives and is an integral part of our interaction with customers in the marketplace. Social media outlets bring the human element to interfacing with our communities and customers. This humanization allows us to address sensitive topics like the recent events in Orlando and how to take preventative measures in the future." [Melissa Stenger] See the full coverage of 2016/2017 Review and Forecast articles hereSave Save
Resolution quality must be considered when assessing surveillance effectiveness Surveillance cameras are becoming more and more commonplace, especially in busy metropolitan locales. Police and detectives hope to reduce crime rates by keeping a watchful eye on civilians but CCTV has only been helpful in solving a small percentage of crimes. Mike Lewis, Country Manager UK for CCTV manufacturer MOBOTIX AG, highlights key considerations for improving the efficiency of existing surveillance systems.In May of 2008, Detective Chief Inspector Mike Neville, head of Scotland Yard's Visual Images, Identifications and Detections Office (Viido) became the UK's first senior police officer to challenge the misconception around CCTV's role in reducing crime. Speaking at Security Document World Conference in London, the Chief Inspector said: "Billions of pounds have been spent on kit, but no thought has gone into how the police are going to use the images and how they will be used in court. It's been an utter fiasco." Neville also pointed out that only 3 per cent of London's street robberies had been solved using CCTV images. A low figure considering the capital is one of the most densely populated areas of CCTV coverage anywhere in the world. Identifying problems with existing CCTV surveillance systems Mike Lewis, UK Country Manager for CCTV manufacturer Mobotix AG believes that the problem stems from a fundamental issue of image quality. "For many organizations CCTV is treated as a ‘check-box' item with little thought given to how a CCTV installation can help the police solve crimes. Criminals are not stupid and a deterrent is simply not enough; the technology has to be able to gather evidence to help the police secure convictions." Lewis points out that the majority of CCTV installations in the UK still use old analog technology with barely a fifth of the resolution found in a basic camera phone. "If a CCTV system, say covering a street outside a jewellers', captures a car pulling up and three men brandishing shotguns marching into the shop - unless you have the resolution to capture the license plate, or some distinguishing features of each masked robber, or audio capture to get a voice print - the system is pretty worthless." Mandating changes in surveillance video resolution requirements The industry also is "less than opaque" when it comes to selling CCTV in his view. "Many vendors will play down high resolution as not necessary or too expensive to implement without actually explaining that it is exactly these high resolution images and audio capture that will help police make successful prosecution where a grainy image would simply be thrown out of court." "Billions of pounds have been spent on kit, but no thought has gone into how the police are going to use the images and how they will be used in court" Lewis points to the continent as an example of where UK CCTV market needs to learn from. In France for example, under anti-terrorism laws pioneered after the 7/7 tube bombings in London, all government building and high risk areas are legally required to have CCTV of a high resolution and retain data for up to 30 days. In Germany, all banks are required to deploy high resolution CCTV to monitor customers, staff and financial transactions in every branch. [It will be very useful to define what is classified as "high resolution" or the minimum resolutions that are acceptable in these countries] MOBOTIX, which only sells fully-digital high resolution CCTV camera systems believes that the potential of CCTV to reduce crime won't be fulfilled unless either the government, police or even third parties such as insurers, licensing boards or trade associations insist that end users deploy a better resolution capture, coverage and video storage and retrieval. "There will be another wave of CCTV installation heading up to the Olympics, so as a nation, we have a perfect opportunity to set a CCTV standard that meets the needs of police, local government and end users to help us reduce crime and secure more prosecution off the back of CCTV evidence,"comments Lewis. Lewis believes CCTV would be able to help solve more crimes if they had higher resolutions "The technology is not the barrier and newer CCTV systems with hemispheric (360 degree) fields of view will allow end users to actually deploy fewer security cameras while maintaining better resolution and wider coverage - the problem is still trying to persuade people that CCTV can catch criminals and not just scare them away." Optimising CCTV for solving and prevention of crime Lewis offers some constructive suggestions on how to improve CCTV's effectiveness as a crime prevention and evidence gathering tool. "There are an estimated 4 million CCTV cameras in the UK but where they all are, what they record and accessibility to these video archives is mostly unknown - having a register of CCTV for use by the police would help them to quickly gather post incident evidence." The idea of CCTV built into the environment was the theme of the 200 Secured by Design' (SBD) initiative that has been adopted by parts of the building industry to promote crime prevention measures like CCTV in development design. The initiative was endorsed by the Association of Chief Police Officers (ACPO), and has the backing of the Home Office Crime Reduction Unit. However, for police gathering information after an incident, there is no easy way to locate CCTV installations in any given area. The industry also is "less than transparent" when it comes to selling CCTV in his view Most CCTV systems installed in the UK use a centralised approach. Each surveillance camera is effectively dumb with the image processing, access to footage and storage taking place at a remote location. In smaller environments, this could be a DVR simply recording everything on a 24-hour loop. In larger campuses or city centres, this is often a dedicated control room monitored 24 hours a day. Instead Lewis argues that a decentralised approach that places more intelligence into the CCTV camera would allow greater accessibility by third parties such as the police and emergency services. "With a decentralised system, private companies could allow the police to quickly add their local cameras into a centrally managed grid." In this method, if an incident occurs, the police CCTV control center could patch an instant video feed from the nearest available CCTV camera. With a decentralised approach, each CCTV camera becomes an access point on an IP network and can be shared by multiple agencies in a more cost effective approach. "This might sound a bit hi-tech, but it is technically possible," explains Lewis. To give an analogy, when the police receive a 999 call, the dispatcher is automatically informed of the location of the caller from the Caller Line Identification system which cross references a database of addresses of each of the 25 million public and private landlines installed in the UK. "A similar system where the police type in a post code and are presented with secure access to video feeds from all decentralised CCTV installations in an area would be a potentially society changing tool for fighting crime." High risk areas in France were legally required to have high resolution CCTV following London Tube bombings Considerations for realising CCTV's full security potential Lewis also believes: "All CCTV cameras should have a minimum mandated image quality with all information stored in a digital format for a minimum of 7 days that can be easily accessed by the police for evidence gathering." Many police forces around the country already have voluntary guidelines for business deploying CCTV and several have made CCTV installation a condition of alcohol or gaming licences. However this policy has successfully been challenged by landlords and upheld by Information Commissioner as potentially in conflict with the data protection act. Unfortunately, Lewis believes for any of these measures to work, there needs to be stronger backing from the government: "There is obviously a fear of creating an oppressive surveillance society but we have regulation for other areas like fire prevention, road safety, disabled access and a host of other health and safety issues - why CCTV, which has the potential to protect lives, is treated differently is a complete mystery to me." Mike LewisUK ManagerMobotix AG
Bandwidth is an important consideration for CCTV systems to reach their full potential Most surveillance systems today transmit data over IP networks. As manufacturers continue to improve the capabilities of CCTV systems, the amount of traffic traveling on a network becomes increasingly large. Bandwidth is a key consideration in managing surveillance systems and ensuring their full potential is reached. In this article, Bosch discusses the importance of bandwidth and how to estimate the amount of bandwidth needed for a particular CCTV system. What is bandwidth and why is it important? Modern-day CCTV systems increasingly use IP networks to send video from one point to another (for example, from a camera to a Video Management System typically running on a PC). IP networks are an attractive medium for transporting video because one cable can carry the video from many cameras. These networks also serve a multi-functional purpose because the same cable can carry video as well as two-way audio, alarm signals, relay signals, PTZ commands, and serial data. With Power over Ethernet, the cable can even carry power to the camera. This greatly simplifies the multitude of cables usually required. However, the network is limited by the amount of traffic it can carry - known as bandwidth, which is measured in bits per second (bps). The table below shows the three kinds of star-topology Ethernet networks in common use today. Name Also known as Bandwidth 10Base-T Standard Ethernet 10 Mbps (Megabits per second) 100Base-T Fast Ethernet 100 Mbps 1000Base-T Gigabit Ethernet 1,000 Mbps or 1 Gbps Video over IP consumes a large amount of bandwidth. As a rough guide, one camera might consume between 100 kbps and 2 Mbps - compare this to audio, which typically consumes only 80 kbps. This explains the immediate success of Voice over IP. The factors that affect bandwidth consumption are described in the table below. Factor Description Examples Video compression method Typically temporal or spatial compression MPEG-4, M-JPEG, Wavelet, and MPEG-2 Frame rate Images per second 1-30 IPS Image resolution The number of horizontal and vertical pixels QCIF, CIF, 2CIF, 4CIF (also known as full D1) Scene activity level The amount of activity in the camera's field of view Low, medium, and high Quiet time The fraction of time where there is no movement (important for temporal compression algorithms like MPEG-4 because neglibible bandwidth is consumed during quiet time) 8:00 pm - 6:00 am Monday - Friday, all day Saturday and Sunday, equates to about 50% quiet time If you run out of bandwidth on your network, you will start to experience the following: Video artefacts (e.g., blocks in MPEG and M-JPEG, and increased fuzziness in Wavelet) Frames may get dropped, making the video appear choppy The video resolution may drop from 4CIF to 2 CIF or even CIF, making the picture less clear The video may freeze entirely and lose the connection temporarily What is the relationship between bandwidth and disk storage? A single IP network cable can carry video from many surveillance cameras and also carry out multiple functions They are directly related. If video is being transmitted at a certain bit-rate across a network to be stored, then it will consume disk space at exactly the same rate. For example, a 1 Mbps video stream will use 1 Mb (Megabit) of space in one second, or about 1/8 = 0.125 Megabytes per second, which equates to 0.125 x 3,600 = 450 Megabytes per hour (about 11 GB per day or 75 GB per week). How do I know how much bandwidth I need? This is an excellent question, particularly because it is unanswerable with any certainty. As explained earlier, it depends on so many factors that you can really only estimate your bandwidth and/or rate of disk-space consumption. This initial guess is based on your experience with previous projects and it is useful - but the best way to predict your needs is to run the actual test. For example, consider planning an IP-based CCTV system for a school. How much bandwidth will the network need to carry for approximately 16 cameras, and how much disk space is required for seven days of recording? View larger image Graph showing results gained by capping the bit rate Capping the bit rate You can ‘cap' the bit rate of each IP camera or encoder so that it never uses more than that specified amount. Note that when capped, the actual bit-rate at any particular moment may be well below the ‘cap' limit. Advantage: Once you know the available disk space, you are guaranteed to get a predictable number of days of video. This is especially important for regulated environments. It is also good news for IT departments who want to know how much you are going to stress the network. Disadvantage: To not exceed the allowed bit rate, the IP camera or encoder has to do something if it finds itself over-stretched. Normally it has the option to either drop some of the frames or reduce the video resolution of the frames - but this can be an issue when the video quality you need has to be degraded under any circumstances. Unlimited bit rate View larger imageGraph showing the results of unlimited bit rate You can let the IP camera or encoder help itself to whatever bandwidth it needs. Advantage: Image quality never deteriorates. Disadvantage: Under certain conditions, the peak load on the IP network may cause problems. This "help yourself" policy also may allow disk space to be consumed faster than you anticipated, so you may not have as many days of video as you expected. Summary With conventional VCRs, it is easy to predict the amount of disk space required for a specified number of days of recording time. With DVRs and IP-based CCTV, it can also be easy to predict (by capping) - as long as you are comfortable with the possibility that the video quality may degrade under certain circumstances. If you overestimate your bit rates, you will end up paying for more storage than you need. The best way to predict your real needs is to pilot a small IP surveillance system (perhaps just one camera). Run it for a short while, then review the video and make any necessary adjustments. This is the most reliable way to get what you need and plan your infrastructure accordingly. In addition to better estimating, it is also important to remember the enormous value of Recording at the Edge, which keeps video off the network for recording. In such a scenario, the network is only used for live streaming and playback.View the Bandwidth quick reference guide Bosch Security Systems
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