AI series products adopt the most advanced AI technologies, including deep learning algorithms that primarily target people and vehicles, which provides higher flexibility and accuracy for end-users. This enables the Dahua AI series to offer various advanced applications such as Face Recognition, ANPR, Metadata, People Counting, traffic data statistics, etc. The complete line up of Dahua AI series includes network (PTZ) cameras, network video recorders, digital video recorders, servers, and platform management products. Beyond seeing the world, the power of AI allows devices to perceive the environment and understand the world in a better way. System Overview Dahua new XVR8000-4KL/4K-I series XVR delivers excellent performance and high recording quality that is ideally applicable to a wide range of industries ranging from retail to banking and real estate. Holding Dahua Technology’s patented HDCVI signature technology, these new AI XVR products are featured with long distance transmission, seamless upgrading, and IoT into analogue monitoring—all while maintaining perfect 4K resolution over coax. With build-in deep learning module, XVR8000-4KL/4K-I series products adopt video image structuring technology based on deep learning algorithms, achieving high-precision human face recognition and perimeter protection. By applying deep learning artificial intelligence, XVR8000-4KL/4K-I allows users to focus on what matters most, improves event response time and helps make video actionable. With its extensive portfolio of front-end and back-end products with HDCVI technology, Dahua solutions can be easily integrated into self-contained systems to satisfy the needs of both system integrators and users. Functions Perimeter Protection Automatically filtering out false alarms caused by animals, rustling leaves, bright lights, etc. Enables system to act secondary recognition for the targets. Improving alarm accuracy. Real Time Face Recognition Video stream real time face recognition. Facial attributes analysis features including gender, age, expression, glasses, moustache, mouth mask. Identify people and also capture, record faces with metadata. Facial feature filtering while real time display, only show faces with target features. Face Database Management Configurable multiple face databases. Powerful face database management. Face database can be applied to video channels independently. Name, gender, birthday, nationality, address, ID information can be added to each face picture. Common/Stranger Mode Supports regular and stranger mode. In stranger mode, when XVR detects a strange face(not in device's face database), it can trigger alarm, buzzer, snapshot, record, etc. Similarity threshold can be set manually. This function is developed for important infrastructure sites for which access control is critical. Smart Search Supports search by metadata of human face. Support uploading face pictures to XVR and compare them with recorded faces in XVR by similarity. Enable operators to quickly and easily search through multi channels and long duration, efficiently find out when and where a person of interest appeared.
The Evolution ExD Cameras, part of Oncam’s Specialist Camera Range, are unique to the 360-degree video surveillance market. Both ATEX, IEC and IECEx certified, the 5MP and 12MP versions have been specifically designed to meet the needs of customers operating in hazardous environmental conditions and potentially explosive atmospheres. The cameras’ housings are manufactured in Stainless Steel 316L, for maximum robustness. The IP66, IP67 and IP68 ratings make the enclosure resistant to harsh environmental conditions. Fit for use in markets such as Offshore and Onshore Environments, Industrial and Chemical Plants, Ports and Marine Applications and Food Processing Areas, the world’s first and only 360-degree ExD camera range is available in four mounting options: Surface Mount, Wall Mount, Pole Mount and Ceiling Mount. With no moving parts, the cameras can be PoE, 12 VDC or mains powered, dependent on whether they will be used indoor, outdoor or in extreme outdoor conditions. A heater is also available in the outdoor models. For enhanced connectivity in extreme outdoor applications, single or multi-mode fibre versions are offered. Indoor: EVO-05-EIP / EVO-12-EIP (PoE) Outdoor: EVO-05-EOA / EVO-12-EOA (115V) EVO-05-EOE / EVO-12-EOE (230V) Extreme Outdoor: EVO-05-ESA / EVO-12-ESA (115V, Single Fibre Optic Mode) EVO-05-ESE / EVO-12-ESE 230V, Single Fibre Optic Mode) EVO-05-EMA / EVO-12-EMA (115V, Multi Fibre Optic Mode) EVO-05-EME / EVO-12-EME (230V, Multi Fibre Optic Mode)
Since 2011, the patented Dallmeier Panomera® multifocal sensor technology has provided comprehensive video protection for vast areas in many football stadiums, perimeters, airports and city areas all over the world. The new Panomera® series, the “Ultraline“, has exceptionally high effective resolution for these situations. Dallmeier presents the first model of the new series, the Panomera® S8 Ultraline, which delivers up to 190 megapixel at 30 fps. The Panomera® concept has revolutionized video technology: with up to eight sensors in a single camera, it is possible to capture enormous distances in unprecedented resolution quality. With fewer cameras and considerably less expense for both infrastructure and management, the total cost of ownership of video solutions are reduced significantly. At the same time, customer specifications regarding pixel density and coverage can be satisfied very precisely. Up To 26,000 sqm. Coverage With One Camera The first model of the new Ultraline series, the Ultraline S8, has an excellent dynamic range of 130 dB UWDR (effective) for an extreme Panomera® effect. This enables a resolution of 125 px/m up to a distance of 160, 104 or 82 m, enabling individuals to be recognized over the entire distance. Identification of persons (250 px/m) is supported up to a distance of 46 m depending on the model, observation (62 px/m) is possible even up to a distance of 322 m. This corresponds to a huge image space of more than 26,000 sqm. with continuous depth of field. Permanent Capture The multifocal sensor system captures and stores all regions of the image space in the highest detail resolution. At the same time, it is not important whether the operators are concentrating on a specific region in live mode (multiple detail zoom) or if regions of interest are displayed in detail based on video content analysis (multiple auto-tracking). The Panomera® recordings always include the entire area of interest and allow every operation to be analyzed. “Made in Germany” And GDPR-Ready Like all Dallmeier cameras the new Panomera® model is manufactured entirely in Germany, at the Dallmeier factory in Regensburg. This in itself is a major factor in the manufacturer’s data protection and data security strategy, since it is then impossible for unauthorized persons to gain access through “backdoors”, for example. In all, 14 functions such as the setup of private zones, People Masking or the very latest encryption-authentication technology in the processing chain of Dallmeier solutions ensure that the strict requirements of the GDPR relating to data protection and data security are met.
VIVOTEK’s FE9391-EV is the next generation of market-leading 12-Megapixel 360° panomorph network camera, featuring a detailed 12-Megapixel CMOS sensor which guarantees superb image quality. Utilizing the latest in panomorph lens technology for 180° panoramic view (wall mount) or 360° surround view (ceiling/wall/floor mount) with zero blind spots, the camera is able to provide comprehensive coverage of open areas such as airports, shopping malls, parking lots, retail stores, offices and more. Removable IR-Cut Filter The FE9391-EV (IP66, IK10 rated) is the successor to FE8391-V in the VIVOTEK 360° surround view family. The new model is equipped with a removable IR-cut filter and WDR Enhancement technology, allowing the camera to maintain optimal image quality around the clock for unparalleled visibility under high-contrast lighting environments. 3D Noise Reduction technology enables the camera to capture clear, polished video under low-light conditions. The FE9391-EV's use of the latest in panomorph lens technology has led to much improved image quality with a huge drop in edge distortion. Latest In IR Illumination The FE9391-EV is also updated with the latest in IR illumination, VIVOTEK's Smart IR II technology with Adaptive IR. Adaptive IR enables the FE9391-EV's IR illuminators to adjust to the scene together or individually to provide the best possible IR image, reducing glaring hotspots and/or underexposed dark spots. Advanced Video Content Analysis The FE9391-EV is also be the first to include a new wave of advanced Video Content Analysis (VCA). Available in 4Q 2017, this includes better object detection in order to reduce false alarms. Through advanced Video Content Analysis functions including crowd detection features the FE9391-EV is the next steps in elevating surveillance cameras from image capturing devices to advanced notification instruments, allowing users to see more in smarter ways.
The Contera NVR Appliance from Arecont Vision Costar is designed to offer powerful IP recording in an affordable, compact chassis. The Contera NVR Appliance is equipped with an on-board 8 or 16 channel PoE switch, that can be upgraded to 24 channels, allowing for Plug and Play connection with ConteraWS™ or ONVIF cameras. With full integration to ConteraWS Web Services, the Contera NVR Appliance offers centralized user management, single sign-on convenience, mobile apps and a web client that allows for easy remote connection to your recorders. Network setup is fast and easy using ConteraWS Web Services, and eliminates the need for port forwarding or DDNS. The Contera NVR Appliance runs on a secure Linux OS and comes preloaded with ConteraVMS™ Server software as a turnkey solution.
With 16ch perimeter protection, the XVR intelligently avoids false alarms to less important objects such as falling leaves and rain, and send alarms only when identifying human or vehicle. Face Recognition function enables alarm for suspects on blacklist, allowing passing for authorized people on whitelist, also alert for approaching of strangers. Besides, utilizing 4ch Metadata Search functions, the new XVR products are smart search enabled, capable of automatically extracting face feature attributes. Offering incomparable perimeter protection, face recognition and metadata search technology, Dahua AI XVR is applicable to a wide range of industries ranging from retail to banking and real estate.
The Avigilon H4 Multisensor camera combines self-learning video analytics with exceptional coverage, featuring 3 or 4 individually-configurable sensors that can be positioned to monitor virtually any area. With 9-32 MP total resolution, it delivers broad coverage and high image detail, and uses H.265 compression technology to reduce bandwidth and storage requirements while maintaining clear images. Each camera sensor incorporates Avigilon self-learning video analytics and works with Avigilon Appearance Search™ technology, our award-winning AI video search engine.
The Contera™ Outdoor Dome megapixel camera features 1080p and 5-megapixel (MP) resolution for optimum performance. The Contera Outdoor Dome combines a day/night mechanical IR cut filter with an integrated motorized remote focus and zoom precision iris (P-iris) lens for excellent, optimal image quality. Regardless of the time of day, the Contera Outdoor Dome is prepared for any lighting condition. For applications with poor lighting conditions, Enhanced WDR™ (wide dynamic range) at 120dB provides the best visual balance to shaded and bright light conditions. For clear color images in low-light, NightView™ offers strong low-light sensitivity for capturing details in extremely poor-lit scenes. Built-in Smart IR LED illumination automatically adjusts output in response to the distance of an object in view to prevent over-exposure when the object is very close to the camera. The Contera Outdoor Dome is ONVIF (Open Network Video Interface Forum) Profile S and G compliant, providing interoperability between network video products regardless of manufacturer.
The Evolution 180 Outdoor Camera is built upon Oncam’s expertise and heritage on 360-degree technology. It is specifically designed for applications that require a dewarped panoramic view of an outdoor scene, without blind spots, from a single sensor camera. The 12MP high-resolution sensor and the built-in 3D dewarped panoramic video provides industry leading Panoramic+ views. The true day/night functionality allows images to be produced in all lighting conditions, including additional IR lighting. The camera is IP66, IP67, IP68, IP69K and IK10+ rated, making it a robust design. Its versatile enclosure enables wall and pendant mounting, while the integrated adjustable mounting allows for an angling of up to 45°. When angled, Oncam’s Angle Compensation Technology (ACT) corrects the view, straightening vertical lines in the scene.
The Contera Bullet outdoor-ready megapixel camera features 1080p and 5-megapixel (MP) resolution for optimum performance. The Contera Bullet combines a day/night mechanical IR cut filter with an integrated motorized 2.7–12mm varifocal remote focus and zoom precision iris (P-iris) lens. Regardless of the time of day, the Contera Bullet is prepared for any lighting condition. For applications with poor lighting conditions, Enhanced WDR™ (wide dynamic range) at 120dB provides the best visual balance to shaded and bright light conditions. For clear colour images in low-light, NightView™ offers strong low-light sensitivity for capturing details in extremely poor-lit scenes, and is further enhanced by built-in Smart IR LED illumination that automatically adjusts output in response to the distance of an object in view to prevent over-exposure when the object is very close to the camera. The Contera Bullet is ONVIF (Open Network Video Interface Forum) Profile S and G compliant, providing interoperability between network video products regardless of manufacturer.
VIVOTEK’s IP9191-HT is a professional H.265 box network camera providing true 3840x2160 resolution at 30 fps. With ultra HD resolution, 30 frames per second, and VIVOTEK’s SNV and WDR Pro technologies, this camera is capable of delivering clear, detailed images in a variety of challenging applications such as city surveillance, transportation and industrial monitoring. VIVOTEK's in-house algorithm brings video compression to next level. With VIVOTEK’s Smart Stream III technology, the IP9191-HT is capable of delivering excellent images while keeping bandwidth and storage consumption at extremely low levels, even smaller than typical 2-Megapixel image size. The IP9191-HT is further equipped with an i-CS (intelligent-CS mount) lens with LSC (Lens Shading Correction) and LDC (Lens Distortion Correction) calibration functions to obtain even better images. When combined with remote focus system, these features enable installers to adjust zoom/focus remotely. These function-rich combinations make the IP9191-HT suitable for a wide range of video surveillance applications. When housed inside the AE Series Enclosures, the IP9191-HT is excellent for long-range outdoor applications. Furthermore, when equipped with the 12-50mm AL-248 lens, the IP9191-HT is an ideal camera that could deliver exceptional images even from surveillance targets that are over 100 meters away.
The Contera Bullet outdoor-ready megapixel camera features 1080p and 5-megapixel (MP) resolution for optimum performance. The Contera Bullet combines a day/night mechanical IR cut filter with an integrated motorized 2.7–12mm varifocal remote focus and zoom precision iris (P-iris) lens. Regardless of the time of day, the Contera Bullet is prepared for any lighting condition. For applications with poor lighting conditions, Enhanced WDR™ (wide dynamic range) at 120dB provides the best visual balance to shaded and bright light conditions. For clear color images in low-light, NightView™ offers strong low-light sensitivity for capturing details in extremely poor-lit scenes, and is further enhanced by built-in Smart IR LED illumination that automatically adjusts output in response to the distance of an object in view to prevent over-exposure when the object is very close to the camera. The Contera Bullet is ONVIF (Open Network Video Interface Forum) Profile S and G compliant, providing interoperability between network video products regardless of manufacturer.
The Avigilon AI Appliance adds patented Avigilon self-learning video analytics and Avigilon Appearance Search technology to almost any IP camera. When connected to Avigilon Control Center (ACC) software, customers can evolve legacy camera systems into powerful AI solutions, with automatic alerts of potentially critical events and the ability to search for and locate a person or vehicle of interest across an entire site. Engineered for high performance, capacity and resiliency, the AI Appliance will be offered in two models and features leading CPU and GPU hardware that simultaneously support Avigilon video analytics and Avigilon Appearance Search technology for up to sixty 2 MP resolution cameras.
The Contera® Indoor Dome megapixel camera features 1080p and 5-megapixel (MP) resolution for optimum performance. The Contera Indoor Dome combines a day/night mechanical IR cut filter with an integrated motorized remote focus and zoom varifocal lens for excellent, optimal image quality. Regardless of the time of day, the Contera Indoor Dome is prepared for any lighting condition. For applications with poor lighting conditions, Enhanced WDR™ (wide dynamic range) at 120dB provides the best visual balance to shaded and bright light conditions. For clear color images in low-light, NightView™ offers strong low-light sensitivity for capturing details in extremely poor-lit scenes. Built-in Smart IR LED illumination automatically adjusts output in response to the distance of an object in view to prevent over-exposure when the object is very close to the camera. The SD card slot supports up to 256GB of storage capacity for convenient onboard storage. The camera’s power can be supplied via a Power-over-Ethernet (PoE - IEEE 802.3af) compliant network cable connection. The Contera Indoor Dome is ONVIF (Open Network Video Interface Forum) Profile S and G compliant, providing interoperability between network video products regardless of manufacturer.
960 hrs max playback, VHS, 2 hrs min playback, Real Time / Timelapse / Event recording, 180 sec sec rewind time, 350 TVL resolution, Ground contact closure Alarm input, Open collector, NTSC, 0.5 to 1 Vp-p 75 ohms unbalanced, 1 Vp-p 75 ohms unbalanced, T120/T160, 360 x 90 x 289, 4 kg, 17, 0 ~ +40Add to Compare
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SourceSecurity.com’s Expert Panel covered a lot of ground in 2016 about a variety of topics in our Roundtable discussions. The very most-clicked-on Roundtable discussion in 2016 was about how to choose between a cloud-based system and a server-based system. Other hot topics that made the Top-10 list of Roundtable discussions included edge-based video storage, the challenges of commoditization, and mistakes customers make when buying and installing security systems. Here is a listing of the Top 10 Expert Panel Roundtable discussions posted in 2016 at SourceSecurity.com, along with a “sound bite” from each discussion, and links back to the full articles. Thanks to everyone who contributed to Expert Panel Roundtable in 2016, including the quotable panelists named below! 1. What factors should a customer consider when choosing between a cloud-based system and a server-based security system? "Invariably the choices will be driven by security processes in place within the corporate environment and by ensuring the remote system is as impenetrable as the corporate network. Both options potentially leave the corporate network vulnerable to a determined cyber attacker, so the systems and access points to the network need to be sufficiently hardened to deter or prevent attacks.” [John Davies] 2. What is the most unusual application of surveillance cameras you have seen recently? "The most unusual application I’ve seen is the use of 360-degree fisheye cameras mounted on mobile poles for security along a marathon route. The poles were mounted on mobile units that contained power and communications infrastructure. Multiple mobile units were driven and placed along the route so that the entire route was constantly under surveillance. " [Jumbi Edulbehram] 3. What is the biggest mistake you see your customers make when it comes to buying or installing security or surveillance systems? "Too many businesses fail to take full advantage of the breadth of services available for maximizing tools like remote diagnostic services, for example, which allow customer service teams to regularly and proactively check equipment quality and make repairs remotely." [Joe Oliveri] A number of major security companies are offering cloud video surveillance solutions apart from the traditional server-based systems, but which is best for the customer? 4. How many megapixels are enough? At what point does additional resolution not matter, or not make economic sense? "The industry commonly holds that 20 pixels/foot is enough for general surveillance, 40 pixels/foot is the minimum for facial recognition and license plate identification, and 80 pixels/foot is used for higher detail like reading logos, names embroidered on a shirt, etc. " [Jason Spielfogel] 5. What is the value of edge-based storage and in what specific applications? "Recording at the edge frees up network bandwidth and PC processing power, allowing users to view and manage video feeds and store applicable images for later use or transfer to the network when necessary. " [Dave Poulin] 6. How can security integrators replace revenue in the age of commoditization? "The integrator community needs to learn to embrace what hundreds of other contractor businesses have. They need to improve their predictable cash flow and margin by offering contracted services. Call it what you like – RMR, managed services, monitoring – the description makes no difference. The integrator community simply needs to get off their butt and make it happen. " [Bill Bozeman] 7. How successful was ISC West 2016? Did it meet your expectations? "It was unanimous that 2016 ISC West was the best show we have participated in Arecont Vision history! Activity on the first two days was especially strong with Systems Integrators, Dealers, Distributors, End Users, and A&E/Consultants. These people all came to see our new product line and were especially interested to see the product performance improvements and ease of installation and setup." [Scott Schafer] More of us are depending on social media smart phone apps as a source of information, providing new levels of immediacy that dovetail well into security, specifically in areas of emergency notification 8. What are the physical security challenges of "safe cities" applications, and how is the market meeting those challenges? "One of the challenges is, of course, to make systems from different manufacturers work together. Interoperability is important not only from an operator’s point of view, but also in how cities and their internal divisions should respond to incidents reported by the security systems. " [Per Björkdahl] 9. How should integrators/installers differentiate themselves or make themselves stand out in today’s market? "In today's market, it's all about customer service. Almost every integrator has good product – and most of these products do a lot of the same things – but what sets integrators/installers apart is the level of value-added support they are providing to their accounts. Increased support through training, follow-up, open communication and keeping them informed on emerging technologies can really speak to the needs that end users have and why they will remain loyal.” [Mitchell Kane] 10. What role can social media play in the security marketplace and/or as a tool to promote better security in general? "Social media has weaved its way into our daily lives and is an integral part of our interaction with customers in the marketplace. Social media outlets bring the human element to interfacing with our communities and customers. This humanization allows us to address sensitive topics like the recent events in Orlando and how to take preventative measures in the future." [Melissa Stenger] See the full coverage of 2016/2017 Review and Forecast articles hereSave Save
Resolution quality must be considered when assessing surveillance effectiveness Surveillance cameras are becoming more and more commonplace, especially in busy metropolitan locales. Police and detectives hope to reduce crime rates by keeping a watchful eye on civilians but CCTV has only been helpful in solving a small percentage of crimes. Mike Lewis, Country Manager UK for CCTV manufacturer MOBOTIX AG, highlights key considerations for improving the efficiency of existing surveillance systems.In May of 2008, Detective Chief Inspector Mike Neville, head of Scotland Yard's Visual Images, Identifications and Detections Office (Viido) became the UK's first senior police officer to challenge the misconception around CCTV's role in reducing crime. Speaking at Security Document World Conference in London, the Chief Inspector said: "Billions of pounds have been spent on kit, but no thought has gone into how the police are going to use the images and how they will be used in court. It's been an utter fiasco." Neville also pointed out that only 3 per cent of London's street robberies had been solved using CCTV images. A low figure considering the capital is one of the most densely populated areas of CCTV coverage anywhere in the world. Identifying problems with existing CCTV surveillance systems Mike Lewis, UK Country Manager for CCTV manufacturer Mobotix AG believes that the problem stems from a fundamental issue of image quality. "For many organizations CCTV is treated as a ‘check-box' item with little thought given to how a CCTV installation can help the police solve crimes. Criminals are not stupid and a deterrent is simply not enough; the technology has to be able to gather evidence to help the police secure convictions." Lewis points out that the majority of CCTV installations in the UK still use old analog technology with barely a fifth of the resolution found in a basic camera phone. "If a CCTV system, say covering a street outside a jewellers', captures a car pulling up and three men brandishing shotguns marching into the shop - unless you have the resolution to capture the license plate, or some distinguishing features of each masked robber, or audio capture to get a voice print - the system is pretty worthless." Mandating changes in surveillance video resolution requirements The industry also is "less than opaque" when it comes to selling CCTV in his view. "Many vendors will play down high resolution as not necessary or too expensive to implement without actually explaining that it is exactly these high resolution images and audio capture that will help police make successful prosecution where a grainy image would simply be thrown out of court." "Billions of pounds have been spent on kit, but no thought has gone into how the police are going to use the images and how they will be used in court" Lewis points to the continent as an example of where UK CCTV market needs to learn from. In France for example, under anti-terrorism laws pioneered after the 7/7 tube bombings in London, all government building and high risk areas are legally required to have CCTV of a high resolution and retain data for up to 30 days. In Germany, all banks are required to deploy high resolution CCTV to monitor customers, staff and financial transactions in every branch. [It will be very useful to define what is classified as "high resolution" or the minimum resolutions that are acceptable in these countries] MOBOTIX, which only sells fully-digital high resolution CCTV camera systems believes that the potential of CCTV to reduce crime won't be fulfilled unless either the government, police or even third parties such as insurers, licensing boards or trade associations insist that end users deploy a better resolution capture, coverage and video storage and retrieval. "There will be another wave of CCTV installation heading up to the Olympics, so as a nation, we have a perfect opportunity to set a CCTV standard that meets the needs of police, local government and end users to help us reduce crime and secure more prosecution off the back of CCTV evidence,"comments Lewis. Lewis believes CCTV would be able to help solve more crimes if they had higher resolutions "The technology is not the barrier and newer CCTV systems with hemispheric (360 degree) fields of view will allow end users to actually deploy fewer security cameras while maintaining better resolution and wider coverage - the problem is still trying to persuade people that CCTV can catch criminals and not just scare them away." Optimising CCTV for solving and prevention of crime Lewis offers some constructive suggestions on how to improve CCTV's effectiveness as a crime prevention and evidence gathering tool. "There are an estimated 4 million CCTV cameras in the UK but where they all are, what they record and accessibility to these video archives is mostly unknown - having a register of CCTV for use by the police would help them to quickly gather post incident evidence." The idea of CCTV built into the environment was the theme of the 200 Secured by Design' (SBD) initiative that has been adopted by parts of the building industry to promote crime prevention measures like CCTV in development design. The initiative was endorsed by the Association of Chief Police Officers (ACPO), and has the backing of the Home Office Crime Reduction Unit. However, for police gathering information after an incident, there is no easy way to locate CCTV installations in any given area. The industry also is "less than transparent" when it comes to selling CCTV in his view Most CCTV systems installed in the UK use a centralised approach. Each surveillance camera is effectively dumb with the image processing, access to footage and storage taking place at a remote location. In smaller environments, this could be a DVR simply recording everything on a 24-hour loop. In larger campuses or city centres, this is often a dedicated control room monitored 24 hours a day. Instead Lewis argues that a decentralised approach that places more intelligence into the CCTV camera would allow greater accessibility by third parties such as the police and emergency services. "With a decentralised system, private companies could allow the police to quickly add their local cameras into a centrally managed grid." In this method, if an incident occurs, the police CCTV control center could patch an instant video feed from the nearest available CCTV camera. With a decentralised approach, each CCTV camera becomes an access point on an IP network and can be shared by multiple agencies in a more cost effective approach. "This might sound a bit hi-tech, but it is technically possible," explains Lewis. To give an analogy, when the police receive a 999 call, the dispatcher is automatically informed of the location of the caller from the Caller Line Identification system which cross references a database of addresses of each of the 25 million public and private landlines installed in the UK. "A similar system where the police type in a post code and are presented with secure access to video feeds from all decentralised CCTV installations in an area would be a potentially society changing tool for fighting crime." High risk areas in France were legally required to have high resolution CCTV following London Tube bombings Considerations for realising CCTV's full security potential Lewis also believes: "All CCTV cameras should have a minimum mandated image quality with all information stored in a digital format for a minimum of 7 days that can be easily accessed by the police for evidence gathering." Many police forces around the country already have voluntary guidelines for business deploying CCTV and several have made CCTV installation a condition of alcohol or gaming licences. However this policy has successfully been challenged by landlords and upheld by Information Commissioner as potentially in conflict with the data protection act. Unfortunately, Lewis believes for any of these measures to work, there needs to be stronger backing from the government: "There is obviously a fear of creating an oppressive surveillance society but we have regulation for other areas like fire prevention, road safety, disabled access and a host of other health and safety issues - why CCTV, which has the potential to protect lives, is treated differently is a complete mystery to me." Mike LewisUK ManagerMobotix AG
Bandwidth is an important consideration for CCTV systems to reach their full potential Most surveillance systems today transmit data over IP networks. As manufacturers continue to improve the capabilities of CCTV systems, the amount of traffic traveling on a network becomes increasingly large. Bandwidth is a key consideration in managing surveillance systems and ensuring their full potential is reached. In this article, Bosch discusses the importance of bandwidth and how to estimate the amount of bandwidth needed for a particular CCTV system. What is bandwidth and why is it important? Modern-day CCTV systems increasingly use IP networks to send video from one point to another (for example, from a camera to a Video Management System typically running on a PC). IP networks are an attractive medium for transporting video because one cable can carry the video from many cameras. These networks also serve a multi-functional purpose because the same cable can carry video as well as two-way audio, alarm signals, relay signals, PTZ commands, and serial data. With Power over Ethernet, the cable can even carry power to the camera. This greatly simplifies the multitude of cables usually required. However, the network is limited by the amount of traffic it can carry - known as bandwidth, which is measured in bits per second (bps). The table below shows the three kinds of star-topology Ethernet networks in common use today. Name Also known as Bandwidth 10Base-T Standard Ethernet 10 Mbps (Megabits per second) 100Base-T Fast Ethernet 100 Mbps 1000Base-T Gigabit Ethernet 1,000 Mbps or 1 Gbps Video over IP consumes a large amount of bandwidth. As a rough guide, one camera might consume between 100 kbps and 2 Mbps - compare this to audio, which typically consumes only 80 kbps. This explains the immediate success of Voice over IP. The factors that affect bandwidth consumption are described in the table below. Factor Description Examples Video compression method Typically temporal or spatial compression MPEG-4, M-JPEG, Wavelet, and MPEG-2 Frame rate Images per second 1-30 IPS Image resolution The number of horizontal and vertical pixels QCIF, CIF, 2CIF, 4CIF (also known as full D1) Scene activity level The amount of activity in the camera's field of view Low, medium, and high Quiet time The fraction of time where there is no movement (important for temporal compression algorithms like MPEG-4 because neglibible bandwidth is consumed during quiet time) 8:00 pm - 6:00 am Monday - Friday, all day Saturday and Sunday, equates to about 50% quiet time If you run out of bandwidth on your network, you will start to experience the following: Video artefacts (e.g., blocks in MPEG and M-JPEG, and increased fuzziness in Wavelet) Frames may get dropped, making the video appear choppy The video resolution may drop from 4CIF to 2 CIF or even CIF, making the picture less clear The video may freeze entirely and lose the connection temporarily What is the relationship between bandwidth and disk storage? A single IP network cable can carry video from many surveillance cameras and also carry out multiple functions They are directly related. If video is being transmitted at a certain bit-rate across a network to be stored, then it will consume disk space at exactly the same rate. For example, a 1 Mbps video stream will use 1 Mb (Megabit) of space in one second, or about 1/8 = 0.125 Megabytes per second, which equates to 0.125 x 3,600 = 450 Megabytes per hour (about 11 GB per day or 75 GB per week). How do I know how much bandwidth I need? This is an excellent question, particularly because it is unanswerable with any certainty. As explained earlier, it depends on so many factors that you can really only estimate your bandwidth and/or rate of disk-space consumption. This initial guess is based on your experience with previous projects and it is useful - but the best way to predict your needs is to run the actual test. For example, consider planning an IP-based CCTV system for a school. How much bandwidth will the network need to carry for approximately 16 cameras, and how much disk space is required for seven days of recording? View larger image Graph showing results gained by capping the bit rate Capping the bit rate You can ‘cap' the bit rate of each IP camera or encoder so that it never uses more than that specified amount. Note that when capped, the actual bit-rate at any particular moment may be well below the ‘cap' limit. Advantage: Once you know the available disk space, you are guaranteed to get a predictable number of days of video. This is especially important for regulated environments. It is also good news for IT departments who want to know how much you are going to stress the network. Disadvantage: To not exceed the allowed bit rate, the IP camera or encoder has to do something if it finds itself over-stretched. Normally it has the option to either drop some of the frames or reduce the video resolution of the frames - but this can be an issue when the video quality you need has to be degraded under any circumstances. Unlimited bit rate View larger imageGraph showing the results of unlimited bit rate You can let the IP camera or encoder help itself to whatever bandwidth it needs. Advantage: Image quality never deteriorates. Disadvantage: Under certain conditions, the peak load on the IP network may cause problems. This "help yourself" policy also may allow disk space to be consumed faster than you anticipated, so you may not have as many days of video as you expected. Summary With conventional VCRs, it is easy to predict the amount of disk space required for a specified number of days of recording time. With DVRs and IP-based CCTV, it can also be easy to predict (by capping) - as long as you are comfortable with the possibility that the video quality may degrade under certain circumstances. If you overestimate your bit rates, you will end up paying for more storage than you need. The best way to predict your real needs is to pilot a small IP surveillance system (perhaps just one camera). Run it for a short while, then review the video and make any necessary adjustments. This is the most reliable way to get what you need and plan your infrastructure accordingly. In addition to better estimating, it is also important to remember the enormous value of Recording at the Edge, which keeps video off the network for recording. In such a scenario, the network is only used for live streaming and playback.View the Bandwidth quick reference guide Bosch Security Systems
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