The excitement of ISC West 2019 continued until the very end – almost. Exhilarated by the first two busy days of the show, attendees and exhibitors seemed to welcome a slower third day. There were no complaints about booth traffic, and still plenty of thoughtful conversations taking place, everyone determined to maximize the value of face time with customers until the last second. Building An IoT Ecosystem In SAST At a show lacking in high-profile new technology announcements, the bigges...
Johnson Controls recently unveiled the findings of its 2018 Energy Efficiency Indicator (EEI) survey that examined the current and planned investments and key drivers to improve energy efficiency and building systems integration in facilities. Systems integration was identified as one of the top technologies expected to have the biggest impact on the implementation in smart buildings over the next five years, with respondents planning to invest in security, fire and life-safety integrations mo...
Arecont Vision Costar, the provider of network-based video surveillance solutions, will reveal multiple new MegaIP and ConteraIP single- and multi-sensor megapixel cameras and the latest release of the ConteraVMS cloud-enabled video management system. These newest offerings are all part of the company’s Total Video Solution and will be on display in the Costar Technologies, Inc. booth (#8045) at ISC West 2019. The expo will be held at the Sands Convention Center, Las Vegas, Nevada,...
Casino operators are looking intensively for solutions to transform the multitude of process data into useful business intelligence information. With its 'Smart Casino Solutions', Dallmeier is pursuing a unique approach in which the manufacturer's video technology is linked to AI systems. At G2E Asia from 21.05.2019 - 23.05.2019, Stand A301, Dallmeier will present solutions for the three main casino areas of gaming, surveillance and marketing. Many casino operators are still struggling with und...
iscHanwha Techwin America, global supplier of IP and analog video surveillance solutions, announced that the new Wisenet X series Plus camera line will be shipping at ISC West 2019. Focusing on ease of installation, the new, highly modular X series Plus is one of the easiest cameras to install, service and upgrade saving installers time and money. Wisenet X Series Plus Cameras Available in either 2MP or 5MP indoor or outdoor configurations, X series Plus cameras utilize magnets to lock sensor...
OnSSI and Oncam have partnered to seamlessly integrate the companies’ industry-leading VMS and panoramic camera solutions. The integration of Oncam’s Evolution 12 Series and Evolution 180 outdoor and indoor panoramic cameras with OnSSI’s recently released Ocularis 5.6 VMS provides a highly efficient means to further improve situational awareness and reduce overall costs. OnSSI-Oncam Integration “This latest integration leverages the extensive camera management and contr...
Eagle Eye Networks announced it has integrated Eagle Eye NuboCam - a mobile camera that connects over 4G/LTE or WiFi - into the Eagle Eye CameraManager cloud video platform. Eagle Eye CameraManager is the ideal video solution for small and medium sized businesses seeking an affordable, quality cloud solution with small camera counts. Eagle Eye CameraManager certified resellers and customers have requested mobile monitoring solutions. “The combination of a mobile connection and Eagle Eye CameraManager brings mobile video monitoring to the CameraManager professional video management software.” says Dean Drako, CEO of Eagle Eye Networks, “Now both remote and temporary locations can be monitored without limitations.” Features Of Eagle Eye NuboCam The Eagle Eye NuboCam connects to 4G/LTE mobile networks or WiFi, providing connectivity at all times. Eagle Eye NuboCam features include: Night Vision: View video clearly at night or in the dark or when events are triggered by the PIR-motion detector. Two-Way Audio: Have two-way conversations via the built-in speaker and microphone. Smart Detection: Receive only relevant notifications with the Smart Object Detection feature. Outdoor Ready: Use either indoor and outdoor applications due to weatherproofing (IP-64). Mobile Video Monitoring Solution “We can now empower our Channel and end users with the freedom, flexibility and mobility of a 4G/LTE monitoring solution. With the integration of our 4G/LTE NuboCam into our Cloud video platform CameraManager, this true Mobile Video Monitoring solution is going to lead to new, unique applications.” says Rishi Lodhia, Managing Director of Eagle Eye Networks EMEA. All Eagle Eye NuboCam’s come SIM-lock free and run on all European Mobile Operators. Additionally, Eagle Eye Networks will also be offering connectivity with various data plans with European coverage in combination with its cloud service.
At GSX 2018 in booth #2341, Hanwha Techwin America, a global supplier of IP and analog video surveillance solutions, will unveil the new Wisenet X Plus camera line. With a focus on modular design, the X Plus series is one of the fastest cameras to install, service, and upgrade saving installers time and money. X Plus cameras also feature in-camera audio messaging playback, extended temperature handling, removable color skins, and PTRZ (pan, tile, rotate, zoom) for ultimate flexibility. “The X Plus series combines the best of Hanwha Techwin X series technology with the convenience of complete modular design,” said Paul Kong, Technical Director, Hanwha Techwin. “X Plus series cameras utilize magnets to lock sensor modules into the housing for instant configuration. Electricians can run conduit with a single PoE (Power over Ethernet) connection to the housing or backplate, without the camera module, allowing security professionals to snap the camera into place after the job site is clean in just minutes.” Wider Area Coverage With 85 Degree Tilt Angles New features enable pre-recorded audio messages to be triggered by in-camera analytics, which are played out of the camera’s audio out connection Camera modules are available with options such as PTRZ, IR, and a heater. Housing choices include indoor, outdoor, and a new compact plenum-rated flush mount. Removable skin covers available in white, black, and ivory allow easy changing of colours to blend in the décor of the room. Custom painting is also made easy since the skin easily separates from the camera. New features enable pre-recorded audio messages to be triggered by in-camera analytics. These messages are played out of the camera’s audio out connection. The audio files are stored locally on the camera’s SD card. Additional highlighted features: Increased operating temperatures from -58 degree to 140 degree F (-50 degree to 60 degree C) Tilt angles increased to 85 degrees for wider coverage with low ceilings PTRZ enables view changes remotely simplifying installation and additional adjustments New gyro-sensors provide shock detection
The Bird Home Automation Group, manufacturer of DoorBird IP video intercoms, and the PropTech company KIWI.KI GmbH announced their collaboration today. The DoorBird D301, the IP Upgrade for analog door intercoms, is now compatible with the KIWI locking system. Analogue To App-Based Door Intercoms The companies have partnered to create an integration solution ideal for businesses requiring the ability to access clients’ residences to perform contracted services. Businesses providing home and elder care as well as cleaning and grounds keeping services can now flexibly manage and open authorized doors using the KIWI keyless access control platform. The DoorBird D301 enables tenants in apartment buildings to convert their existing analog door intercoms into app-based, smart door intercoms. When a visitor rings at the entrance door, the user receives a push notification on their smart device. The user can then speak with the visitor and open the house or apartment door using the DoorBird App. This allows for secure keyless access to the entrance area of the apartment building and, optionally, to the apartment. The KIWI transponder, app, and portal allow users to open doors and manage access privileges digitally Digital Locking System With KIWI doors can also be opened keylessly. The PropTech (Property Technology) company offers a digital locking system for doors of apartment buildings. The KIWI transponder, app, and portal allow users to open doors and manage access privileges digitally. This way, KIWI digitises key management for the housing industry and, moreover, serves as a platform for services that require access to buildings and apartments, such as parcel services or garbage collection companies. IP Door Intercoms “The integration of DoorBird into the KIWI platform benefits businesses providing home and elder care in particular, as they can now manage and open house and apartment doors easily. This new branch of business strengthens our market position as the leading manufacturer of IP door intercoms and smart upgrades for analog doorbells with the widest variety of compatibility options,” says Sascha Keller, CEO of the Bird Home Automation Group. “With DoorBird we can expand our product portfolio, offering our customers even more flexible use of KIWI. We are especially pleased that DoorBird is a technology company based in Berlin, just like KIWI,” says KIWI co-founder and Executive Director Claudia Nagel explaining her reasons for the cooperation.
MOBOTIX is expanding its management team to include two new members. Following a successful restructuring, MOBOTIX is paving the way for sustainable growth with its new members, both experienced industry experts: Christiane Kampling will now serve as Head of Marketing & Corporate Communications and Hartmut Sprave as Chief Technical Officer. Both started with the company on June 1st, 2018. Christiane Kampling is taking over as Head of Marketing and Corporate Communications at MOBOTIX. She has held similar positions over the past few years at Covestro, Xchanging Continental Europe, and ING Investment Management. Kampling was also able to gather valuable insights as Marketing Director at Dell. In these positions, Kampling, who holds a degree in business, was responsible for business opportunities and implementing entire marketing strategies (B2B and B2C). She was also in charge of developing new go-to-market models for SMEs and end users as well as building business opportunities through strategic partnerships and cooperations. In addition, Kampling managed the media, PR, and advertising agencies as well as events and roadshows. Digital Video Technology Expert As member of the Management Board and new Chief Technical Officer of the Technology Department, Hartmut Sprave is responsible for hardware, software, product management, quality management and strategic innovation at MOBOTIX. Sprave, who holds a degree in physics, previously served as Vice President Software at Loewe Technologies GmbH, where he was responsible for software development at numerous sites in Germany and abroad. As co-founder and CTO of MacroSystem Digital Video GmbH, he gained extensive experience in the area of digital video technology. “Christiane Kampling and Hartmut Sprave are both highly qualified experts, and we are pleased to welcome them to the MOBOTIX team,” says Thomas Lausten, Chief Executive Officer at MOBOTIX. “With our strong new Management Team, we are perfectly prepared for any upcoming challenge.”
Johnson Controls is announcing two new camera models to the Illustra Pro line, with the Pro Compact Mini-Domes in 2MP and 3MP resolution, ideal for applications such as retail stores, healthcare facilities and banks where low profile and aesthetics are important. The Illustra 2MP and 3MP Pro Compact Mini-Domes are equipped with various viewing angles including corridor mode, a 9x16 field of view aspect ratio for vertically oriented scenes, which is optimal for hallways, aisles or any area where a landscape format is not ideal. Illustra IntelliZip Compression Technology Rated both IP66 and IP67 for environmental protection as well as IK10 for vandal resistance, the Pro Compact Mini-Domes can be installed indoors and outdoors for a truly versatile solution. The Pro Compact Mini-Domes also feature Illustra IntelliZip compression technology that monitors and adjusts system streaming parameters to match the level of activity in the camera’s field of view. IntelliZip automatically adjusts the video encoder configuration to ensure every detail within the region of interest is captured clearly, minimizing video and storage needs. Advanced VideoEdge TrickleStor technology enables edge based video recording, even in an outage. The camera will automatically detect network interruptions and starts to record video to its SD card followed by a seamlessly video transfer to the NVR’s hard drive once the network connection is reestablished.
Johnson Controls has announced the expansion of its high-resolution IP camera portfolio with new models of Illustra Flex Mini-Domes and Box IP cameras in 4K resolution. These new cameras are designed to offer a high-image quality and feature rich surveillance option intended for a wide range of applications. The Flex 4K cameras provide increased detail and efficient bandwidth management technology for both indoor and outdoor models. The versatile Illustra Flex cameras feature effective bandwidth management technology and highly reliable and redundant recording features that ensure continuous and cost-efficient video streaming. Illustra IntelliZip compression technology provides powerful dynamic bandwidth management beyond H.264 and H.265 to offset increased video storage requirements from high-resolution video recording. The Flex Mini-Domes feature day/night capabilities and offer a P-Iris lens, which delivers clear video and improved depth of field in changing light Day/Night And WDR Capabilities For crystal clear images day and night, the versatile Illustra Flex cameras are True Day/Night and feature True Wide Dynamic Range for balanced images in challenging lighting conditions. The affordable and compact Illustra Flex Box Camera is best suited for small to medium size offices, retail boutiques, schools, and bank branches looking for a cost-effective camera. The Flex Mini-Domes feature the same day/night capabilities, but also offer a P-Iris lens, which delivers clear video and improved depth of field in changing light. In addition, the outdoor Flex Mini-Dome features built-in IR illuminators to produce clear images at an effective distance in a variety of low light conditions. The Flex Mini-Domes and Box adhere to the rigorous security standards of the Tyco Cyber Protection Product Security Program. The holistic cyber approach begins at initial design concept, continues through product development, and is supported through deployment, including a rapid incident response to meet the comprehensive and evolving cybersecurity environments.
Audio is often overlooked in the security and video surveillance industry. There are some intercom installations where audio plays a key role, but it’s not typically thought about when it comes to security and event management. Audio takes a back seat in many security systems because audio captured from a surveillance camera can have a different impact on the privacy of those being monitored. Audio surveillance is therefore subject to strict laws that vary from state to state. Many states require a clearly posted sign indicating audio recording is taking place in an area before a person enters. Analytic information derived from audio can be a useful tool and when implemented correctly, removes any concerns over privacy or legal compliance. Audio analytics on the edge overcomes legal challenges as it never passes audio outside of the camera Focused Responses To Events Audio analytics processed in the camera, has been a niche and specialized area for many installers and end users. This could be due to state laws governing audio recording, however, audio analytics on the edge overcomes legal challenges as it never passes audio outside of the camera Processing audio analytics in-camera provides excellent privacy since audio data is analysed internally with a set of algorithms that only compare and assess the audio content. Processing audio analytics on the edge also reduces latency compared with any system that needs to send the raw audio to an on-premises or cloud server for analysis. Audio analytics can quickly pinpoint zones that security staff should focus on, which can dramatically shorten response times to incidents. Audio-derived data also provides a secondary layer of verification that an event is taking place which can help prioritise responses from police and emergency personnel. Microphones And Algorithms Having a SoC allows a manufacturer to reserve space for specialized features, and for audio analytics, a database of reference sounds is needed for comparisonMany IP-based cameras have small microphones embedded in the housing while some have a jack for connecting external microphones to the camera. Microphones on indoor cameras work well since the housing allows for a small hole to permit sound waves to reach the microphone. Outdoor cameras that are IP66 certified against water and dust ingress will typically have less sensitivity since the microphone is not exposed. In cases like these, an outdoor microphone, strategically placed, can significantly improve outdoor analytic accuracy. There are several companies that make excellent directional microphones for outdoor use, some of which can also combat wind noise. Any high-quality external microphone should easily outperform a camera’s internal microphone in terms of analytic accuracy, so it is worth considering in areas where audio information gathering is deemed most important. Surveillance cameras with a dedicated SoC (System on Chip) have become available in recent years with in-built video and audio analytics that can detect and classify audio events and send alerts to staff and emergency for sounds such as gunshots, screams, glass breaks and explosions. Having a SoC allows a manufacturer to reserve space for specialized features. For audio analytics, a database of reference sounds is needed for comparison. The camera extracts the characteristics of the audio source collected using the camera's internal or externally connected microphone and calculates its likelihood based on the pre-defined database. If a match is found for a known sound, e.g., gunshot, explosion, glass break, or scream, an event is triggered, and the message is passed to the VMS. If a match is found for a known sound, e.g., gunshot, explosion, glass break, or scream, an event is triggered, and the message is passed to the VMS Configuring A Camera For Audio Analytics Audio DetectionThe first job of a well-configured camera or camera/mic pair is to detect sounds of interest while rejecting ancillary sounds and noise below a preset threshold. Each camera must be custom configured for its particular environment to detect audio levels which exceed a user-defined level. Since audio levels are typically greater in abnormal situations, any audio levels exceeding the baseline set levels are detected as being a potential security event. Operators can be notified of any abnormal situations via event signals allowing the operator to take suitable measures. Finding a baseline of background noise and setting an appropriate threshold level is the first step. Noise ReductionA simple threshold level may not be adequate enough to reduce false alarms depending on the environment where a camera or microphone is installed. Noise reduction is a feature on cameras that can reduce background noise greater than 55dB-65dB for increased detection accuracy. Installers should be able to enable or disable the noise reduction function and view the results to validate the optimum configuration during setup. With noise reduction enabled, the system analyzes the attenuated audio source. As such, the audio source classification performance may be hindered or generate errors, so it is important to use noise reduction technology sparingly. Audio Source ClassificationIt’s important to supply the analytic algorithm with a good audio level and a high signal-to-noise ratio to reduce the chance of generating false alarms under normal circumstances. Installers should experiment with ideal placement for both video as well as audio. While a ceiling corner might seem an ideal location for a camera, it might also cause background audio noise to be artificially amplified. Many cameras provide a graph which visualises audio source levels to allow for the intuitive checking of noise cancellation and detection levels. Messages And EventsIt’s important to choose a VMS that has correctly integrated the camera’s API (application programming interface) in order to receive comprehensive audio analytic events that include the classification ID (explosion, glass break, gunshot, scream). A standard VMS that only supports generic alarms, may not be able to resolve all of the information. More advanced VMS solutions can identify different messages from the camera. Well configured audio analytics can deliver critical information about a security event, accelerating response times and providing timely details beyond video-only surveillance. Analytics take privacy concerns out of the equation and allow installers and end users to use camera audio responsibly. Hanwha Techwin's audio source classification technology, available in its X Series cameras, features three customizable settings for category, noise cancellation and detection level for optimum performance in a variety of installation environments.
Increasing the quality of illumination with LED can help deter crime and improve the accuracy of video analytics One of the greatest challenges that indoor and outdoor security surveillance solutions face is lack of light. However, obtaining the proper amount of illumination for security goes beyond merely flooding a specific area with light. Without an adequate lighting source, video cameras are ineffective. When capturing only dark, blurry images and video, they can quickly become worthless to security staff or law enforcement personnel. On the other hand, too much of the wrong type of light can create issues like ‘hot spots’ and overheating, which can diminish crucial details and eventually cause irreversible camera damage. Fortunately, there has been a recent global shift that is sending users away from the old incandescent and fluorescent bulbs, and toward LED lighting. Regardless of the type of CCTV application, there are an abundance of reasons to stop using alternative types of illumination. Here are 3 of the most substantial. 1. Better Illumination And Clarity You would think it would be common knowledge by now that cameras need light to see, and well-lit areas provide less cover for criminals to commit crimes. However, it is still somewhat commonplace to have sites where either not enough lighting or the wrong kind of lighting is implemented. Increasing the quality of illumination in an area has the ability to deter crime, make other accompanying safety devices perform better and even improve the accuracy of video analytics. LED lamps are currently the only security lighting option that possesses a multitude of point sources, making it possible to aim your light Integrators need a lighting solution that consistently performs, and when it comes to supplying the best operation, price, and durability; external LED lighting is the only choice. One particular aspect of external LED lighting that makes optimum illumination possible is the strategic uniformity of its design. External LED lamps are currently the only security lighting option that possesses a multitude of point sources, making it possible to literally aim your light by situating individual diodes in a specific angle or position. This type of alignment offers a more consistent and predictable light source than anything else on the market, eliminating much of the uncertainty involved in installation. This allows you to light a larger area more effectively and efficiently with nearly zero effort. 2. Faster Start-up Time Whether you are talking about protecting a utilities facility, school campus or international border, it doesn’t take long for an incident to occur. Unlike traditional HID (high intensity discharge) lights, which can take up to a half an hour to reach full competency, LED’s spark up immediately. The colder the climate of the area, the more difficulty the HID bulbs have getting started and functioning properly. Given that there are many places in the United States alone where temperatures can sit at or below single digits, it seems almost absurd to consider anything else besides LED lighting. This sizable flaw can be especially detrimental if attempting to set up any kind of crime deterring, motion detection solution. One of the most crucial components of a sufficient response system is reaction time. Having a sluggish start up regarding any component is much like having a 15 year-old guard dog laying in your yard. By the time the security lights get up and running, the offender has already committed the crime and vacated the premises. And as dependable as the old boy may have been in the years past, he is now just too darn slow. And with an industry that is quickly moving toward more effective real-time, situational security solutions, a hesitated response is the last thing desired. Unlike traditional HID lights, which can take up to a half an hour to reach full competency, LED’s spark up immediately 3. Increased Life Span And Efficiency Organizations have the opportunity to save thousands of dollars each year in energy costs, while increasing site security by switching to LED based illuminators. LED’s provide the lowest running cost currently available, with less than 100 watts needed for the most powerful of units. Not to mention, the majority of additional wattage needed for other types of lighting units is generally burned off in the form of unwanted heat, decreasing both quality and length of life. How much longer LED’s lasts when compared to the alternative is astounding. For example, the average life span of an incandescent bulb is about 1,000 hours; fluorescent bulbs last for around 10,000 hours, while LED’s can shine bright up an impressive 100,000 hours. That is 100 times longer without changing a bulb. Furthermore, installing LED’s not only saves money in the form of lower energy and running costs, but also provides a very low rate of bulb malfunction or failure. This cuts down on maintenance fees as well as possible down time that could result in vulnerability. Inspections and servicing of lights alone can be very expensive and time consuming. LED’s radiate much less heat, reducing the chance of insect complications and helping prevent hot spot development, again saving you time, money and frustration at every camera site. Enhancing Overall Security Solution As time goes on, the importance of strategic lighting becomes more and more evident for the security industry. The continual growth of technologically advanced video solutions (biometrics, crowd detection, motion tracking, etc.) demands a level of clarity and consistency that can only obtained through proper lighting. LED’s not only yield a lower running cost and better performance, they provide an enhanced level of control. The most important benefit of a security tool is not always how it performs independently, but how it increases the effectiveness of the overall security solution it is a part of.
Pressure from online shopping is making it even more critical for brick and mortar stores to maximize the revenue per visit Analytics is trending hot for both video and data. The problem for many security video acquisition products is the old adage: bad data in, results in bad data output. The acquisition device has to be able to deliver on the promise to the end user and perform in challenging environments. What products, with what capabilities, are changing the video analytics game today? Imagine a customer entered your store and invested an hour of their time carefully choosing merchandise with a total value of $250. However, after waiting 15 minutes in the check-out line, frustrated and annoyed by the wait, they abandoned their cart leaving the store very unsatisfied. Unfortunately, retailers face these types of challenges with customer experience and conversion every day. Measuring Retail Store Success Pressure from online shopping is making it even more critical for brick and mortar stores to maximize the revenue per visit from every shopper. Brick and mortar retailers spend millions in advertising to entice customers to visit their stores. Once a customer enters a store, the retailers’ number one goal is to provide the best shopping experience, resulting in high conversion rates, as well as high average sales per shopper. Once a customer enters a store, the retailers’ number one goal is to provide the best shopping experience, resulting in high conversion rates The conversion rate—how many people made a purchase vs. how many people entered the store—is how many retailers measure and compensate their store managers. They also use people counting data to measure the effectiveness of expensive advertising campaigns. Achieving accurate data is critical for these and many other decisions that directly affect competitiveness and profitability. Many retailers are now measuring their stores’ performance on size of basket and complementary product sales. If you bought shoes, did you buy socks? If you bought a printer, did you buy extra cartridges, paper and office supplies? Did you purchase items at the checkout counter? Upsells and complementary purchases increase markedly as a result of good customer/employee experiences. Queue time tracking is so accurate today that it can tell you precisely how long a specific person has waited in line The Rise Of Analytics Human-based analytics probably started in the early 1700s when shopkeepers began installing bells on their entrance doors to hear (and count) customers entering and leaving their shop. Acquiring retail shopping data has been around a long, long time, and it is now becoming quite sophisticated. Queue time tracking is so accurate today that it can tell you precisely how long a specific person has waited in line. If wait times exceed a store’s policy, an alert can be sent real time to store management allowing them to react quickly by opening additional check-out lines. Or, how does the customer service experience look now if after five minutes in line a mobile teller greets you and offers to check you out? Not only did the store achieve the sale but the customer service experience is one that assures a good customer rating and a likely returning, loyal customer. Video Acquisition Devices Transactional data is accurate because it’s tied to core operations of the retailer. Where the data gets fuzzy is in transforming a physical act, capturing it with a device, and turning that into data. So, the data is only as good as the acquisition device. The hard reality is that at a lower level of accuracy, the data means nothing and the reports are worth nothing. Store managers and other analysts can filter and mash-up people data and POS data against a set of rules to create and uncover never-before available insights In recent years, the barriers to successful data acquisition and analysis have been lowered. One such area is the innovation of video acquisition devices. Here, new technology has been developed that delivers unprecedented accuracy in tracking human figures in a store. The ubiquity of smart phones and WiFi makes new data collection increasingly possible. After the customer enters the store, they can be tracked—where did they go, for how long, where did they go first, at what point did they abandon the store, and of course what was purchased? Rapid advances in data acquisition technology like Time of Flight sensors are also improving the reliability of the data collected by these devices. Now, store managers and other analysts can filter and mash-up people data and POS data against a set of rules to create and uncover never-before available insights as to how to achieve set goals, shining a light on previously dark data, resulting in greater sales and profitability. The brick and mortar retail world is moving toward acquiring the same data as for the online shopping experience Advanced Video Analytics Technology What are these new innovative technologies designed to facilitate better acquisition of accurate, non-transactional data? Three manufacturers innovating at the “Best” level of technology include: RetailNext, Brickstream and 3xLOGIC: RetailNext: The first technology platform to bring e-commerce style shopper analytics to brick-and-mortar stores, brands and malls, RetailNext is a pioneer in focusing entirely on optimizing the shopper experience. RetailNext’s Traffic 2.0 platform goes beyond basic traffic counting by leveraging data from WiFi enabled smartphones, providing powerful insights such as visit duration, unique traffic, pass-by traffic, visit frequency, and entrance path analytics. Additional capabilities include: True traffic measurement – Automatically excludes store staff from traffic and key KPI metrics. Isolates employee paths to create complete interaction analysis of shoppers and sales associates. Optimize staff – Identifies traffic cycles across the day, week, or year. Aligns staff and customer-to-staff ratio to traffic power hours by integrating workforce management with traffic data. Brickstream (now owned by FLIR): Brickstream’s line of 3D stereo vision sensors provides highly accurate, anonymous information about how people move into, around, and out of physical places. Using people counting and tracking metrics, retailers can identify and capitalize on opportunities to increase sales, grow margins, enhance customer experience and loyalty through improved service, optimize in-store marketing initiatives, and rapidly implement operational improvements at individual locations, regionally or across the entire chain. 3xLOGIC: 3xLOGIC’s Time of Flight (ToF) device is a special purpose, smart people tracker designed specifically for queue management and people counting. Combining 3D imaging technology with intelligent video analytics, this device uses a state-of-the-art infrared sensor and specially designed lenses to improve measurement accuracy when compared to the current generation of thermal and stereoscopic cameras. One of the most advanced systems available in the marketplace today, this device achieves excellent performance even in the most challenging lighting conditions or when one object is partially obscured by another. The device also supports Stationary Queue Measurement (no object movement is necessary for maintaining tracking). The analytics boat is leaving the dock, never to return. The brick and mortar retail world has left behind manual reports and secret shoppers, and is moving toward acquiring the same data as for the online shopping experience. Where to begin? Reliable data acquisition devices. If your retail operation is not on board, you will be left behind, and that quite possibly will result in a fatal competitive blow. Save Save
A gunshot localization solution can turn a video camera system into a real-time safety system in the event of an active shooter. Called ShotPoint, the system is completely automated. Working with a video management system (VMS), it can enable a video image of an active shooter to be provided in seconds based on the location of a gunshot. “For responders, the police department doesn’t have to manage cameras, but has the instant availability of a camera feed,” says Kathleen Griggs, President of Databuoy, which supplies ShotPoint. “All the cameras are available and cued only in an emergency.” ShotPoint is a network of sensors which can be mounted on walls, ceilings, street light poles or other indoor or outdoor locations. Using a “sensor mesh approach,” ShotPoint reliably detects and localizes the source of gunfire; ranging from small handguns to high caliber rifles. The system can cover large indoor or outdoor areas such as schools, office buildings, retail centers, campuses, and parks. Localizing Gunshots Through Acoustic Channels Each sensor has an array of four acoustic channels (microphones) that can locate the source of a gunshot sound, the time of arrival and the time distance of arrival. ‘Hearing’ shots from several vantage points (using multiple sensors) enables the system to take into account the angle and time of the sound, which vary in different environments, thus accurately providing the location of the gunshot. A ‘fusion processor’ box (at the edge) listens to the various sensor nodes and computes the location of the gunshot, relative to a floorplan and/or based on global positioning system (GPS) location. In an outdoor location, additional information may also be inferred, such as the trajectory of the gunshot and/or the caliber of the firearm. An event might cue an integrated video management system to provide a picture of the shooter to police and first responders Real-time Computer Analytics Unlike other gunshot detection systems, ShotPoint does not require human confirmation of the gunshot, and the alarm is provided instantaneously (in real time and automatically) based on computer analytics operating at the edge. Keeping analytics simple and focusing on one type of event (gunshot) allows computations to be done quickly. “It may not be a real-time system if it takes time to classify many types of sounds,” says Griggs. If a gunshot is detected, the ShotPoint system pushes a ‘shot report’ (including location and a time stamp) to a database in the cloud that sends the result instantly to any ‘subscriber,’ which could be a video system, a lock system, or an emergency notification app that provides a pre-configured message. For example, an event might cue an integrated video management system to provide a picture of the shooter immediately to police and first responders, thus providing vital situational awareness when time is critical. “The more severe the active shooter event, and the longer it takes to clear the victims, the more victims there are likely to be,” says Griggs. “Time equals lives and the sooner they can solve the problem, the more lives can be saved.” ShotPoint can also be used to cue an automatic lockdown system that controls wireless locks. ShotPoint Applications Databuoy, which began as a contractor funded by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) and the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), developed the acoustic sensor technology for military applications, but then realized that it is more useful in static locations than in the on-the-move environment of the military. Looking to commercialize the technology, the company turned to applications in stationary sites such as office buildings or schools. A test installation of ShotPoint at Sandcreek Middle School in Ammon, Idaho, was recognized and awarded $75,000 by the U.S. Department of Justice. The system combines ShotPoint hardware with the school's existing camera systems to provide a live video feed to first responders in real time, thus enabling a fast, effective and coordinated response. ShotPoint reliably detects and localizes the source of gunfire; ranging from small handguns to rifles A technology such as ShotPoint is also a tool to enable police instant access to an independent video system (such as one at a school or business) only in case of an emergency. If police has constant access to video from a private system, that video is subject to provisions of the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA), which in effect provides public access to the video. Sharing video only in emergency situations is not subject to FOIA requirements. Smart City Security In addition to applications in schools and other institutions, ShotPoint is a useful option for security and public safety in a smart city environment; the sensors could be attached to street lighting in various neighborhoods. If there is a gunshot, the system would record it. “Gun activity in some areas is not currently being reported,” says Griggs. “If you integrate it with cameras, you have evidence right there to solve the case and catch the criminals.” She acknowledges the scenario is currently theoretical. ShotPoint has received Safety Act Designation Protections by the U.S. Department of Homeland Security. The DHS assumes liability for a terrorist event at a location that uses specified anti-terrorism systems; in effect, the DHS has vetted the system and provides an incentive for its use (in the form of lower insurance costs). Griggs says the push notification system has a ReSTful API and is easy to integrate and install, incorporating network protocols. Infographic: How To Prevent Active Shooter Incidents
Amid all the discussion of security integration and end-to-end solutions on the first day of IFSEC 2016 was an undercurrent of uncertainty. The international trade show opened at ExCel London just days before the historic "Brexit" vote, when Britons will decide whether to remain a part of the European union or to exit the politico-economic fusion of 28 member states. With the Brexit referendum this week, the polls are neck-and-neck, so the vote could go either way, hence the uncertainty. If "leave" wins the vote, what might it mean for business, including the security and video surveillance companies exhibiting at IFSEC? Brexit implications on security market For example, if Great Britain leaves the EU, might it increase costs of goods flowing throughout the larger European market? Would a distributor in Germany face new costs and/or more complex processes when sending equipment to Britain? EU laws would still apply during a two-year negotiation period if the UK votes to leave. Therefore, changes are unlikely to be immediate; however, long-term uncertainty can be bad for any market, whether it's the stock market, the currency market, or the security market. "Once you exit the EU, there may be different rules related to larger contracts," says Ivo Drent, Arecont Vision's Vice President of European Sales. "Suddenly a UK company quoting jobs in the EU will face a different climate." Manufacturers from other countries, including the Asia-Pacific (APAC) region, would eventually need to renegotiate export contracts with the newly independent United Kingdom. Given a skilled labour shortage in the UK integrator market, might a "leave" vote also complicate the ability of companies to recruit candidates from neighbouring countries, and thus aggravate the problem? Dominant security themes at IFSEC Although Brexit was a topic of discussion at several IFSEC stands, there were plenty of other aspects of the security market to consider, too. Manufacturers here are enthusiastic and quick to tout their new products, although many of them were shown previously in the United States last spring at ISC West. However, they're new to the international visitors to IFSEC. Also, the themes of integration, end-to-end systems, and technology partnerships dominated discussions. New products at IFSEC 2016 If "leave" wins the vote, what might it mean for business, including the security and video surveillance companies exhibiting at IFSEC? Arecont Vision was among the companies introducing actual new products here, including the new SurroundVideo Omni Mini IP Dome Camera, a 2-, 6- or 10-megapixel all-in-one camera with two sensors that are remotely user-configurable and provide true day/night video suitable for indoor/outdoor use. The low-profile camera is useful in schools, retail and banking (ATM) applications. Its small size makes it less noticeable and unobtrusive, even in environments that are sensitive to aesthetics. It replicates many of the benefits of Arecont Vision's four-sensor SurroundVideo cameras in a smaller form factor and at lower cost. "It can replace multiple single-sensor cameras or pan-tilt-zooms (PTZs), and give coverage exactly where you want it," says Jeff Whitney, VP Marketing, Arecont Vision. "If you cover a wide area, you never lose situational awareness." An emphasis on solutions rather than single products is another theme you hear repeatedly this year at IFSEC. For example, the sensor company Optex is promoting its REDSCAN mini RLS-2020I, an indoor laser scan detector that provides a 20x20-meter vertical or horizontal detection area, as an adjunct to video analytics. The sensor helps to protect assets and equipment by creating an invisible laser wall that detects any intrusion. Combined with a video analytics system, the hardware can increase reliability and eliminate false alarms. Leveraging the two technologies creates a result that is greater than the sum of the parts. A demonstration at the stand involves a display of drink glasses and spirits (as might be seen at a bar after closing). A "laser wall" protects the display: Anyone who tries to touch a glass triggers an alarm. The alarm trigger is faster and more accurate than a video analytics approach - there is no delay as pixels are processed. The detection zone can be divided into four sections, with each linked to a PTZ preset that directs camera coverage where it is needed. Technology partnerships Technology partnerships are also making news. Milestone opened the show with a press conference announcing an agreement with Dell to introduce a range of "plug and play" solutions for the surveillance market. The solutions can support 8, 16, 26 and 48 cameras and come complete with Milestone Xprotect and Microsoft Embedded licenses. There will be more to see on the second day of the show, and possibly more Brexit discussion, too. The vote is on Thursday, the last day of the show.
Pengsheng Industrial Park is the first investment project by a Chinese private enterprise in Uzbekistan that has been acknowledged and ratified by the governments of the two countries. Located in Uzbekistan's Sirdaryo state, the Pengsheng Industrial Park is the biggest non-energy cooperation project between China and the Central Asian country. At present, there are over 10 workshops covering various fields with a total number of more than 1,500 employees. As a model project of China-Uzbekistan cooperation, it has contributed to a large number of job opportunities and high output value for local economic development. High-End monitoring system The expansion of the production scale of the park brought inconvenience to management and the current simple front-end camera plus back-end storage video surveillance system cannot meet the growing production management and modern monitoring needs any more. Dahua provided the park with a complete, high-end monitoring system that contain over 500 HD cameras, 100 IP camerasDahua provided the park with a customized complete, high-end monitoring system that contain over 500 HD cameras, 100 IP cameras, central management, central storage, third-party contact as well as display and control system all around factory, fence, outdoor and indoor areas to protect the whole park. To better secure the access between the network of video surveillance system, the data is gathered from front-end devices by PON transmission to establish looped network for video surveillance and to ensure reliability. Advanced technology solutions This project is the first general contracted project with great significance in Uzbekistan. Dahua is not only the supplier of the equipment, but also responsible for the whole project life cycle including construction, delivery, system documentation, technical support, operation training and long-term maintenance. The solutions have effectively reduced the difficulty during production process, which greatly improved the management efficiency for customers. In the future, Dahua will continue to provide more advanced technology solutions such as face recognition, personnel and vehicle management IT systems, industrial machine vision, etc. for the Peng Sheng industrial Park.
e-shelter security has installed over 2,000 smart Sony network cameras to monitor high-security buildings and critical infrastructure at data center locations in Europe. Integrated Security Solutions Expert The Frankfurt-based system integrator builds and operates integrated security solutions for mission-critical environments The Frankfurt-based system integrator builds and operates integrated security solutions for mission-critical environments, where customer applications must be available around the clock. As well as offering necessary hardware and infrastructure redundancy, the centers must also be protected against virtual and physical attackers. To prevent unauthorized access to servers and other infrastructure without creating unnecessary barriers, e-shelter security is making increasing use of intelligent, self-learning security systems. Physical security is supported by Sony SNC-EB632R infrared and SNC-WR632C dome cameras that are used for perimeter surveillance at the data center locations, together with SNC-EM600 minidome cameras that are used for indoor surveillance. Sony Video Security Dome Cameras Key criteria for the choice of cameras were very high image quality - even in challenging environmental conditions - and extreme reliability. “Another decisive factor for us was our long-standing cooperation with the Sony Video Security team” says Kai Friedrich, Head of Application Engineering and IT at e-shelter security. “Their expertise helps us to think in terms of not just products but about entire solutions. Equally, they have provided us with very sound technical advice and support throughout the entire project.” Cayuga Video Management System The Sony cameras are controlled and managed using SeeTec’s Cayuga video management system The Sony cameras are controlled and managed using SeeTec’s Cayuga video management system. All cameras are connected to e-shelter security’s certified emergency call and service centers, allowing appropriate intervention to be initiated in the event of an incident. As well as ensuring the physical security of the data centers, the cameras also provide protection against cyber-attacks on customers’ assets. High levels of integral security prevent hackers from using the Sony cameras as an entry point into the customer’s own network. Due to the positive experience gained during more than three years of cooperation on data center projects, e-shelter security is also using Sony cameras in logistics centers, consulting/finance industry office buildings and smart building projects where the company combines innovative security technology with new digital technologies.
A video surveillance solution manufactured by Tyco, the security products division of Johnson Controls and installed by Kings Secure Technologies, is helping deter and detect hate crime directed at worshippers who attend the Gurdwara Singh Sabha in Bradford. HD Illustra IP Network Cameras 32 high definition Illustra IP network cameras from Tyco have been installed to monitor activity around the site of the Sikh place of worship, to identify anyone showing hostility towards the congregation. The Gurdwara Singh Sabha is sadly not alone in being a place of worship that has been the victim of hate crimes. Throughout society, 2017 saw over 68,000 acts of aggression in the UK being recorded as being motivated by racial or religious prejudices. Integrated Video Surveillance Systems System integrator, Kings Secure Technologies, was one of three companies invited to compete for the contract to install the new video surveillance system System integrator, Kings Secure Technologies, was one of three companies invited to compete for the contract to install the new video surveillance system following on from a risk assessment carried out by a ‘Designing Out Crime’ officer from the West Yorkshire police. “The members of the Gurdwara wanted to take advantage of the very latest video surveillance technology in order to provide the police with high quality video evidence of any incidents or suspicious activity,” said Paul Atherton, Chief Sales & Marketing Officer at Kings Secure Technologies. “With 32 cameras required to ensure there would be no blind spots, this size of a project might normally stretch the budget of a place of worship, even though Illustra cameras are competitively priced. Fortunately, the Gurdwara was able to successfully apply for help with the cost of installing the new system via the security funding scheme available as part of the Government Hate Crime Action Plan. This was possible because the Gurdwara had been the target of religious based hostility.” Vandal-Resistant Dome Cameras The 32 installed Illustra cameras are a combination of indoor and weatherproof, vandal-resistant 2 megapixel and 3 megapixel mini-domes. With Wide Dynamic Range (WDR) and built-in IR illumination, they are designed to work effectively across a wide range of lighting conditions from bright sunlight to total darkness. As such, they are an ideal solution for when there is a need to capture faces and the vehicle number plates. An Exacq IP04-12T-DT Network Video Recorder (NVR) with 12 Terabytes of storage onboard installed by Kings, ensures that the images captured by all 32 cameras are recorded around the clock. The IP04-12T-DT has 64 camera channels and so provides the Gurdwara with the option to install further cameras should it need to do so in the future. Remote Video Monitoring Using Exacq App We have installed the cameras so that we can assist the police in prosecuting anyone who commits a hate crime" The Gurdwara was originally a pharmaceutical production factory which has been converted into a place of worship and extended to provide space for educational and recreational activities as well functions, such as weddings. “Our Gurdwara is in almost constant use by the Sikh community in Bradford. We have installed the cameras so that we can assist the police in prosecuting anyone who commits a hate crime by being insulting or verbally aggressive towards any of our worshippers or visitors,” said Surjit Singh, a member of the Gurdwara. “The clarity of the images captured by the Illustra cameras is impressive and this has allowed us to pass on to investigating officers’ good quality video evidence of some recent incidents. As well as being able to locally access the images stored on the NVR, we also have the added bonus of being able to use the Exacq mobile App on our smartphones or tablets, enabling us to remotely keep a close eye 24/7 on what may be happening in the immediate vicinity of the Gurdwara.”
It was over a century ago that Charlotte Hungerford Hospital (CHH) was founded, as a gift by industrialist Uri T. Hungerford. The vision was to create a community hospital that would serve as a beacon of hope and a place of comfort for the sick and injured. 100 years later, that same community spirit has helped CHH evolve into a vibrant, independent, affordable healthcare network that delivers a comprehensive range of healthcare programs and services for over 100,000 lives in Northwestern Connecticut. A Challenging Safety Diagnosis Avigilon has made us more efficient as we don’t have to spend much time sifting through large amounts of video” Charlotte Hungerford Hospital prides itself on supporting patient and staff safety in all hospital areas and locations. Several years ago, they found themselves with an outdated security system that lacked quality video coverage and recording capabilities. CHH struggled with reliable video playback and faced frequent system crashes. As a result, the hospital’s security operators were often unable to provide accurate evidence during forensic investigations and many liability claims and hospital incidents went unresolved. CHH needed a cost-effective, comprehensive security solution that could protect patients and staff across multiple locations while still being flexible enough to scale with the hospital’s growing needs. Avigilon AI & Analytics Technology With a desire to improve its legacy surveillance system, CHH looked to Avigilon’s advanced artificial intelligence (AI) technology and video analytics to meet their security needs. CHH began a multi-phase upgrade that included installing over 100 Avigilon cameras with self-learning video analytics, deploying AI-based Avigilon Appearance Search technology and using impulse radar technology with the Avigilon Presence Detector (APD) Sensor. Avigilon Appearance Search technology – a sophisticated deep learning AI search engine – helps CHH quickly locate a specific person or vehicle of interest across all cameras both inside the hospital and care centers as well as outside parking lots. This technology provides CHH’s operators with enhanced situational awareness, enabling fast event response and helping to save time and effort during critical investigations. To protect areas of the hospital where cameras cannot be installed, CHH installed the Avigilon Presence Detector (APD), a discreet impulse radar device with self-learning radar analytics that scans, learns, and continuously adapts to its environment. Avigilon Presence Detector Sensors Our Security Department’s mission at Charlotte Hungerford Hospital is the safety of our patients, visitors, and employees" Capable of detecting persons who aren’t moving or are hidden, the APD sensors help improve situational awareness for CHH staff, and are used in areas where cameras are not permitted, such as restrooms or change rooms. When integrated with Avigilon Control Center (ACC) video management software, APD sensors alert CHH operators of human presence while still maintaining privacy. Avigilon H4 cameras were used throughout the hospital to provide exceptional image quality and built-in self-learning video analytics, which provides accurate detection and notification of movement of people and vehicles. CHH also deployed HD Multi-sensor cameras which provide up to four camera views per camera installation, using only one camera license and network drop. This allows CHH’s staff to efficiently cover all angles in order to detect, verify, and act on potential security events across the hospital’s premises. Avigilon H4 and HD Multi-Sensor Cameras At the core of CHH is a desire to help the community and still serve as the beacon of compassion it was founded to be 100 years ago. With these values in mind, the hospital’s mission when it comes to security is the safety of patients, visitors, and employees. Avigilon’s AI solutions have helped achieve this by moving the CHH system from legacy to advanced and providing effective monitoring around the clock while also helping to create operational efficiencies. Since deploying ACC software, CHH’s operators spend significantly less time reviewing recorded video, allowing them to focus on proactive event response. Working with Avigilon, Charlotte Hungerford Hospital has a roadmap for continued growth and exceptional patient safety.
Beykent University in Istanbul Turkey was established as a non-profit organization by Adem Celik-Beykent Educational Foundation and started its education programs in 1997. Since then, it has grown its teaching and research facilities over five campuses for a population of approximately 29,000 students. The university offers a high-quality learning experience which includes 72 Associate’s degrees, 69 Bachelor’s degrees and over 50 Postgraduate programs. Medical students at Beykent University need to take lab exercises including audiometry and advanced simulation. However, in the audiometry lab, only 3 out of 20 students among a class are able to observe in the silent cabin and there is no other access to this cabin from outside. Also, patient simulation by students needed to be reviewed more closely while and after performing the exercise for educational purpose. Hanwha Techwin high resolution cameras were installed in labs to support medical students High-Res Camera Installation About 450 Hanwha Techwin cameras were installed at multiple campuses of the university from Oct. 2015 to Aug. 2017. Especially 5 Megapixel high resolution cameras (5 of SND-6084R, 11 of XNO-8080R) were installed in labs to support medical students’ education. In the audiometry lab, Wisenet cameras installed inside the cabin made the rest of 17 students standing outside able to observe what is happening when hearing tests are being carried out. For the advanced simulation lab, Wisenet cameras were transferring images and sounds of the exercise performance collected from 3 simulation rooms to 1 observation room, making it possible for students to see the mistakes and the good examples on projection or television screens. The University has also deployed Wisenet cameras and recorders in order to help create a safe and secure environment for students and teachers throughout the campuses including VIP house, classroom, auditorium, outdoor campus and Medical School and Faculty of Dentistry in Avalon Campus. Over 700 Winset cameras to be installed in other locations throughout the University" Wisenet Camera Integration Results “The most important reason for us choosing Wisenet products was the efficient way they work smoothly with software applications. The functionality promised to us at the sales stage has been delivered and the Hanwha Techwin team in the Turkey office have handled the project with care from start to finish. They have always been just a phone call away when we needed them for problem solving and they also provided extensive trainings. Their willingness to ensure continuity of the project has been a major benefit to us. As a result, we will be continuing to install Wisenet cameras in other locations throughout the University and are planning to have about 700 installed by the end of the project,” Barkin Oktem, IT manager at Beykent University.
ASSA ABLOY UK Specification, a UK division of ASSA ABLOY, a provider of door opening solutions, has assisted with the design and specification of doorsets and relevant hardware for the new Silverstone CE Primary School. Working alongside Northamptonshire County Council, local firm pHp Architects and contractor Lakehouse Construction, the UK Specification team helped deliver the full-scale build of the two-form entry primary school. Products specified included 92 ASSA ABLOY laminate-faced timber doorsets, complete with redwood frames and dark grey PVC edges, making them easy to clean and to help conceal scuffs from daily use. Timber Doorsets The colour contrast between the edge of the door and the door surface also helped to achieve an inclusive environment, in line with the latest legislation and guidelines such as Approved Document M of The Building Regulations 2000 and BS8300:2009+A1:2010. The doorsets were complemented by a full ironmongery specification of ASSA 3228 ZP hinges, ASSA ABLOY DC200 Rack & Pinion Door Closers, Union Optimus 3 Locks, UNION J1000 door furniture and ASSA finger guards, which prevent pupils’ fingers from being trapped in closing doors. We have worked on a number of education projects and pride ourselves on tailoring the solutions we provide from our extensive experience in the sector" Masterkey Access System The specification also included ASSA’s P600 cylinders for internal and external doors as well as external gates, providing the school with one masterkey system and permitting access to authorized personnel only. Chris Wayman, Associate at pHp Architects commented: “ASSA ABLOY UK Specification not only supplied high quality and fit-for-purpose products, but they also provided a full consultancy service, which took into account factors such as pupil comfort, flow of traffic around the school, as well as the need for staff to access certain areas of the building efficiently and securely. We are delighted with the finished result.” James Bloomfield, Headteacher at Silverstone CE Primary School said: “Working with the UK Specification team was straightforward from start to finish. The doors and ironmongery specified really enhance what is an exceptional building.” David Shields, National Specification Manager at ASSA ABLOY UK Specification, added: “We have worked on a number of education projects and pride ourselves on tailoring the solutions we provide from our extensive experience in the sector.” Risk Management “The challenge in all schools is to prioritize safety and minimize the risk of injury, while providing a comfortable learning and teaching environment for both pupils and staff." "We believe we have not only achieved this, but also exceeded expectations with the solutions we helped design and specify via our BIM capabilities and personable one-to-one service.”
Round table discussion
Higher pixel count is better. It’s a basic tenet of the video surveillance market, or at least it is the implication as manufacturers continue to tout their latest products offering ever-higher pixel counts. But the reality is more nuanced, as our Expert Panel Roundtable panellists explain this week. Pixel count shouldn’t be seen as an end unto itself, but rather as a factor in determining what camera is applicable to which application. Pixel count is just one factor of several to consider, and the needs of the application must rule all decisions. We asked this week’s panel: How many megapixels are enough? At what point does additional resolution not matter, or not make economic sense?