Considering how much the modern smartphone has become a common everyday tool and cultural icon, it’s hard to believe it has only been with us for a relatively short space of time. The first Apple iPhone was launched in 2007 and yet in a little over a decade the smartphone has become as essential as our keys or wallet.
From its conception as a multi-faceted communications device, it has morphed into something far more integrated in our daily lives. Services such as Apple Pay, Android Pay and PayPal have seen the smartphone become a credible replacement for cash and cash cards, but equally, it is possible to replace access cards and keys as well.Smartphones can easily receive authentication credentials remotely and access can be confirmed or denied instantly
The ability to accurately authenticate an individual and the applications this offers for security purposes, is something that the security industry needs to continue to embrace and further promote to our customers.
Most security professionals understand the potential benefits of using mobile device authentication, with flexibility being the key advantage. Smartphones can easily receive authentication credentials remotely and access can be confirmed or denied instantly. Equally, smartphones already contain many secure options to ensure they are only used by the authorized user – fingerprint and face recognition, as well as pattern authentication and PIN, being prime examples.
Unfortunately, there is still a lack of awareness amongst some security operators, customers and the public of these exciting benefits. Potentially there may also be some reluctance, in certain quarters, to trusting a mobile device with physical security. A lack of trust in seemingly ‘unproven’ technology is not unusual, but the security industry needs to demonstrate reliability along with the considerable security and convenience benefits of using it.
Trusted Part Of Security Network
Many smart devices already securely bind the mobile device with the right person by using 2-factor authenticationMobile device security needs to earn its trust, in much the same way as any other new ground-breaking application. In fairness to the doubters, it’s not hard to imagine how much of a risk a badly protected mobile device could be to any secure network!
There are two key obstacles that smartphones need to clear before they can become a trusted part of the security network though. Firstly, that they are secure enough to be trusted as part of a security network, and secondly that they can reliably identify an authorized user in a real-world environment.
Many smart devices already securely bind the mobile device with the right person by using 2-factor authentication. For example, this could combine a PIN code with the fingerprint or face of the authorized individual.
In areas with particularly high security, you could also implement a wall-mounted biometric reader (fingerprint, facial recognition or iris scan) to add a further level of protection and ensure there is no wrongful use of the mobile device.
Security tokens or access cards are typically rigid in their programming, only allowing access to certain areas
Security By Location
With its many and varied functions, undoubtedly one of the most useful systems on any smartphone is its GPS location tracking. It’s also a perfect tool to assist with security systems interaction.A benefit of using smart device authentication is the cost savings over operating traditional tokens
Consider any secure facility – it will feature different levels of access. This can vary from a humble canteen and break-out areas, right through to secured doors around potentially dangerous or highly sensitive areas - such as plant rooms, or even a nuclear facility!
Security tokens or access cards are typically rigid in their programming, only allowing access to certain areas. A smartphone, however, can be granted or denied access depending on the location of the request by the individual – GPS literally adds a level of extra intelligence to security.
Using QR codes seem to be a simple but reliable identity and access control authentication optionMobile devices tend to be guarded and protected with the same concern as your money or your keys. Many of us literally carry our mobile device everywhere with us, so they are relatively unlikely to be misplaced or lost – certainly in comparison to a key card for example.
Also, think about how often you use or hold your smartphone – some estimates suggest 2,600 times each day! With that level of interaction, you’ll be aware very quickly if it’s been misplaced, not least because of the inconvenience and cost to replace it. This level of personal connection makes it perfect for use with security systems.
Another obvious benefit of using smart device authentication is the cost savings over operating traditional tokens. No more plastic badges, access cards, lanyards, printers and consumables used to administer security. This is something the security industry really needs to shout about!
It will come as no surprise to hear that smartphones are exceptionally common too. Figures suggest that in 2015 there were nearly 41m in use in the UK and this is predicted to rise to 54m by 2022. With the UK population being just over 65m, that is a very high percentage of people already carrying this technology.
Using a resource that people already have, and which is highly secure, makes unquestionable financial as well as practical sense.
GPS location tracking is a perfect tool to assist with security systems interaction
Agreeing on common and shared open protocols has unfortunately been one of the stumbling blocks for the security industry in adapting to a predominantly smartphone authentication approach. NFC (Near Field Communications) technology in mobile phones and smart devices has failed to be the universal success it promised.Not everyone has an iPhone, but it is such an important segment of the market for customers
Mobile technology trends have dictated to the systems that use it. Apple’s earlier (Pre iOS 11) decision to restrict the use of NFC to Apple Pay on its devices has had a profound effect on the implementation of NFC in other applications too. Not everyone has an iPhone, but it is such an important segment of the market that other manufacturers are wary of how customers will be able to use any new technology.
We have seen a much bigger focus on using Bluetooth Low Energy technology on mobile devices instead. With providers such as HID Global, STid in France and Nedap in the Netherlands now concentrating on developing Bluetooth Low Energy readers and mobile credential applications, this seems like a highly credible alternative.
Along with NFC and Bluetooth Low Energy options, there also seems to be a lot of interest in using QR codes as simple but reliable identity and access control authentication. These can easily be displayed on a screen or printed if necessary, giving great flexibility over the type of technology that is used in the future.
Upgrading Existing Security Systems
There are strong arguments for many businesses to continue using MIFARE+ systems if they suit operations well We are steadily seeing the signs of smartphone authentication replacing the cards and tokens we have been familiar with. However, many consumers still want options rather than to just be railroaded down one path.
A business that has invested in cards or tokens will want to use that technology investment fully. The changes will come when readers are updated – this is when security specifiers and installers need to promote the advantages of dual-technology readers, which offer options to include smartphone authentication into the mix.
There is still considerable diversity amongst smart devices, the operating systems they use, and the security technology employed by each. Android, Apple iOS and Blackberry devices all vary with regards to the biometric authentication available, so security administrators may need to be flexible on the types of authentication they accept.
Interestingly, card technology has also progressed at an astonishing speed too – with MIFARE+ proving to be a highly cost-effective, practical and secure system that can easily be integrated. There are strong arguments for many businesses to continue using these systems if they suit operations well.
NFC (Near Field Communications) technology in mobile phones and smart devices has failed to be the universal success it promised
A hybrid approach may be the best answer for many security operators. This means those who choose to enjoy the benefits in terms of flexibility and convenience of smartphone authentication can do so, whilst those who are more hesitant can continue to use more traditional methods.
A hybrid approach may be the best answer for many security operators
Larger organizations may find that the swap over is a slower and more gradual process, whilst smaller start-up businesses may prefer to jump to a smartphone-based approach straight away. If security systems are well integrated but modular in their approach, then it becomes much simpler to evolve as time goes on.
Embracing The Benefits
Using their app-based systems architecture, smartphones are ideally placed to evolve with security systems in the future. There are many benefits for the security industry and our customers, but we need to remember that this move will involve a culture change for many security operators and users.
The security industry needs to be mindful and respectful of any anxiety, but also be positive and promote the considerable benefits mobile authentication offers.
VIZpin, designer and manufacturer of the VIZpin smartphone-based, Bluetooth-enabled access entry system, has announced the appointment of Wendi Grinnell to the newly-created position of Vice President, effective immediately.
Grinnell, of Elizabethtown, is a graduate of Rutgers University and has 20 years of marketing and sales leadership experience. She joined VIZpin in January 2017 in the role of marketing director.
Wendi’s extensive industry experience in customer-focused technology solutions and technical marketing make her a natural fit for the role of VP"
Grinnell Appointed VIZpin VP
According to VIZpin President and CEO Paul Bodell, the role of Vice President was added to the company’s organization to support VIZpin’s rapid growth and market expansion. He notes, “Wendi’s extensive industry experience in customer-focused technology solutions and technical marketing make her a natural fit for the important role of Vice President. Her contributions as marketing director have been invaluable, and we are eager for her to apply her innovative thinking and vision in her new, expanded role to continue enhancing VIZpin’s strategic direction and driving additional growth and profitability.”
As Vice President, Grinnell will work closely with Bodell to determine VIZpin’s overall business strategy. She will have an integral role in the development and execution of the company’s growth strategy to achieve strategic business objectives, including leading sales and marketing efforts and team members to secure new business and expand existing business.
Smartphone Access Control
Grinnell comments, “Since joining VIZpin, it has been exciting to see such a dramatic shift in the industry with the adoption of smartphone access control. There are many new opportunities to explore, and as Vice President, I am looking forward to helping to create and execute new strategies to continue to expand our brand and grow the business.”
ADME, Inc., parent company of Apollo Security Access Control has announced creation of a new division for sales and support exclusively for its Software OEM and Integration partners. This new division, named ApolloEM, will be responsible to provide support for industry partners that use Apollo’s hardware platforms along with their own software solutions.
“Providing hardware-only solutions to our partners has been a significant part of Apollo’s business since the very beginning,” explained William Lorber, Vice President of Sales and Marketing. “Establishing a separate division to strengthen our role as an Access Hardware OEM became logical as more partners are coming on board to utilize our new product line.” Lorber went on to explain that Apollo’s new ASP Series Controllers allow easy integration as well as post-factory customization with App Scripting.”
ASP-4 Integrated Controller/Reader Interface
The flagship of the new hardware series, ASP-4 is a four-door integrated controller/reader interface designed for secure, high volume applications. In addition to expansion options via OSDP to support up to 20 readers, the ASP-4 can work in a network device cluster to support up to 128 doors working as a single management unit.
Other features such as a native Open Platform SDK, on-board app scripting and 3rd-party serial device support make ASP Series an attractive choice for system integrators and software OEMs in the security industry.
ApolloEM will provide support for existing partners as well as market to potential new partners. Upcoming events for 2018 include Security Essen and ASIS/GSX as well as product and technical seminars worldwide.
Avigilon Corp. is a relatively young company in the security market and has come a long way since it was founded in 2004. From an early focus on high-megapixel imaging, the company’s end-to-end solutions have evolved to include access control, video analytics and now artificial intelligence (AI). A reflection of how far Avigilon has come in a short time is the recent $1 billion acquisition of the Canadian company by Motorola Solutions.
Avigilon’s President and COO, James Henderson, is also on the young side – age 39 to be exact. He has been recognized as recipient of Canada’s Top 40 Under 40 Award for 2018. Henderson has also been a key figure in the transition to ownership by Motorola.Motorola has been an amazing partner and lived up to what they said. You will see an incredible growth trajectory for our organization.”
Partnership With Motorola Yields Growth
That transition was completed in March. “There’s a million ways these types of transitions could go,” says Henderson. “Motorola has been an amazing partner and lived up to what they said. You will see an incredible growth trajectory for our organization.”
“Motorola likes to push the pace of technology,” adds Henderson, “and they have allowed us to continue as an independent business, focusing on sales, synergies and growth. They have given us the resources we need to make it happen even faster.”
With the acquisition, Avigilon is also well positioned to benefit from Motorola’s larger global presence and familiar brand name. Specifically, Motorola has already been able to propose Avigilon systems for some larger citywide solutions and government projects.Henderson was selected for the honor from more than 800 nominees by an independent, cross-national Advisory Board
Henderson says the Canada’s Top 40 Under 40 Award reflects Avigilon’s accomplishments as well as his own. “It’s a huge honor to be selected as part of the 40 Under 40 group,” said Henderson. “From my perspective, I think of it as a tribute to the hard work of the Avigilon team. I haven’t done it on my own, but as part of working with and leading a world-class business.”
The award shines light on how Avigilon is pushing technology to its limits, says Henderson. “It will help the world take notice of what we are doing and what we can accomplish,” he says. “It also brings positive attention to the great things we are doing in the security industry as a whole.”
Canada's Top 40 Under 40
Henderson was selected for the honor from more than 800 nominees, all aged under 40, by an independent, cross-national Advisory Board based on four criteria: vision and innovation; leadership; impact and influence; and social responsibility. The award recognises Henderson’s strategic vision that has successfully driven Avigilon’s top-line revenue growth and profitability.
Henderson says the security industry too often is associated with negative events in the public’s mind. Negative events are when discussions of security systems often come into play. “We want to shine a positive light on the industry as a whole, and the things we are doing to make people safer in the world,” he says.
Avigilon’s fast growth has been built on creating new technologies and presenting them to customers as end-to-end solutions
Henderson says Avigilon’s fast growth has been built on creating new technologies and presenting them to customers as end-to-end solutions. “We have developed a culture at Avigilon of people who want to be the best, who are proud of the company, and the things we are doing,” he says. “That pride helps them be motivated even further.”
“Whether it’s operational challenges or security and safety, we provide end users with the result they need,” says Henderson. “We want to continue to own the customer experience as a complete solutions provider and to build on that with additional services and technologies, ranging from devices to decisions to actions.” [Avigilon] want to continue to own the customer experience as a complete solutions provider"
Utilizing Integrator Partnerships
A key component of the “customer experience” is the Avigilon integrator channel. “We have been selective with who we partner with and support them through training, sales and engineering support,” Henderson says. “We can be right there by their side with large projects, and also support them and ensure that their brand promotes the customer experience.”
As Avigilon’s technologies are deployed to address a broader spectrum of customer challenges – operational applications as well as security and safety – the integrator community has helped to lead the way. “We are already seeing integrators start to evolve and develop these new uses cases, such as increasing operational efficiencies, and to optimize solutions for various vertical markets,” Henderson says.
Avigilon has consistently emphasized an end-to-end solution approach, even as others in the industry opted for a more product-centric approach and depending on open systems to create solutions using components from multiple manufacturers. Although open systems are still dominant, there has been a noticeable trend of more companies in recent years adopting Avigilon’s end-to-end approach.Among the challenges, Henderson says meeting the customer’s need to manage an overload of information is the largest
What Next For Avigilon?
Like other companies, Avigilon faces several challenges in the market, including a need to ensure their solutions are compatible with customers’ information technology (IT) environments, and to provide encryption and address other cybersecurity needs.
But among the challenges, Henderson says meeting the customer’s need to manage an overload of information is the largest. Avigilon addresses that challenge with newer AI and deep learning systems in addition to video analytics that sift through the overabundance of data and direct the operator’s focus to what they need to know.
What’s next for Avigilon? “We will be looking to expand our devices that digitize the physical world,” says Henderson. “Cameras are one way to digitise the physical world, but there can be a multitude of other devices, too. We will also be looking at more cloud solutions, more AI and analytics and new tools to dive through that mountain of information. And it will all be bundled into end-to-end solutions.”
Varsity Management is an innovative education system focused on learning and leadership. Varsity offers well-designed courses plans that are in sync with the state and national board curricula. Based on the re-engineered learning patterns, these plans help teachers provide multisensory learning and develop social and thinking skills in students. Varsity Management is empowering 3,85,000+ students annually with its presence across 465+ schools, PAN India.
Recording Accurate Attendance Data
The main requirement of the organization was to bring its time-attendance under the same network umbrella. Varsity Management Pvt Ltd wanted to manage time-attendance of more than 15,000 employees at 100+ locations across India. Initially, they were using traditional methods for attendance marking. As a result, they were facing many problems in maintaining records of the same. Hence, they required an efficient system for maintaining and recording accurate attendance data of staff members. They required a biometric hardware solution that could precisely capture employees’ attendance. Moreover, they needed instant SMS notifications for certain events like missing in/out punch, attendance summary, etc.
Matrix meticulously studied the needs of Varsity Management along with its regional partner Vigilant Technologies
Time-Attendance Management Solution
Matrix meticulously studied the needs of the institute along with its regional partner Vigilant Technologies. Having discussed in depth with Varsity’s team, Matrix offered its comprehensive Time-Attendance solution for managing and tracking staff movement from a single place.
Matrix has installed 130 COSEC DOOR FOT V3 biometric time-attendance terminals at 100 locations across India. HR/Admin could easily track attendance of all employees and generate different types of reports for timely salary payment. Now users are updated instantly on different events like missing in/out punch, attendance summary, etc. when it occurs.
Benefits of Biometric Time-Attendance Terminal
Centralized Monitoring and Control
Efficient Time-Attendance Management
Quick and Easy Salary Calculations
As one of the largest IT companies in Scandinavia, EVRY provides comprehensive computing, IT consulting, and business solutions to Nordic companies, financial institutions, public sector entities, and health authorities. While security at EVRY facilities is paramount, so is maintaining a leadership brand and accommodating a high flow of staff and visitors.
Boon Edam Security Doors
Entrances of EVRY facilities must provide a high level of security given the value and sensitivity of the work they do, as well as the presence of clients’ intellectual property and other data. Management was looking for entry designs that would not only provide a secure entry way, but would also display excellence in design, innovation and quality – elevating and supporting the overall perception of the firm for both staff and visitors.
The EVRY security team quickly zeroed in on Boon Edam as a premium entrance provider. When they heard that many Boon Edam entrances could be customized to meet aesthetic objectives or to match desired colors and finishes, they were compelled to come and see the samples in person.
Bravida System Integrator Bravida, the system integrator who installed the Lifeline Speedlane Swing speed gates integrated them with cutting-edge access control technology
Bravida, the system integrator who installed the Lifeline Speedlane Swing speed gates integrated them with cutting-edge access control technology that communicated with security personnel. The combination of this physical and technological access control delivered a highly effective solution that met EVRY’s needs for both staff and visitor access control.
“The reception area of an IT company like EVRY was an ideal application for the Lifeline Swing speed gates,” explains Daan Van Beusekom, Product Manager Security Access, Royal Boon Edam. “The sleek, high-tech design of the turnstiles support EVRY’s brand positioning, and they provide a high-throughput, secure solution that meet EVRY’s demanding access requirements. The turnstiles also integrate with leading access control systems, making it easy to tie them in with EVRY’s existing security strategies and systems.”
Lifeline Speedlane Swing Speed Gates
The Lifeline Speedlane Swing speed gates are available in a wide selection of dimensional and glass choices to support a range of needs, such as higher security levels or disabled access. It features a slim form factor that creates an almost invisible gateway – instantly conveying an impression of sleek design that is reinforced by futuristic light pulses that guide user actions. Available in a range of colors and finishes, it can be customized to blend in or stand out, depending on the need for the installation.
Evolution has an established reputation for excellence having worked on many high-profile projects, designing, specifying, integrating and maintaining systems in some of the most demanding environments. Some of these projects have specified Third Millennium readers. Its brief was to deliver a solution that not only provided the highest levels of security, but also served to showcase Third Millennium readers and their capabilities in the best possible light.
Two cameras monitor the front and rear entry points, with access controlled by four Third Millennium RX Series RFID readers
Security Management System
Peter Jones, Managing Director of Third Millennium, chose Evolution both for its proven technical prowess, and its reputation for working in highly sensitive areas: “We have been operating for some 20 years, and due to the nature of the business we have always been relatively covert,” he explains. “You won’t find our name emblazoned on the building, in fact we are situated in a business center, in a multi-tenanted building. Our part of it has always been secure but it was time to upgrade to a higher level of security.”
Evolution devised a solution based on the S2 NetBox VR Quatro, a security management system which allows all access control, event monitoring and video surveillance to be managed through a single, user-friendly browser interface. Key personnel can therefore quickly and easily manage who comes in/out of the premises, with a full audit trail. Two cameras monitor the front and rear entry points, with access controlled by four Third Millennium RX Series RFID readers.
Third Millennium employees can choose a traditional Third Millennium card, while others are using an app on their mobile phone or their smart watch
Evolution RX Series Range
The RX Series is a range of readers that combine sophisticated technology with clear aesthetic appeal, available as a gloss finish polycarbonate/ABS in either black or white. A subtle feature of the reader is the shadow line backplate, a simple design mechanism which offsets the reader a few millimeters from the mounting surface, making the unit appear to ‘float’ against the wall.
Being Bluetooth-enabled readers, Third Millennium employees can choose what type of pass they use. Some are opting for a ‘traditional’ Third Millennium card, while others are using an app on their mobile phone or their smart watch.
Standalone IP System
Having specified Third Millennium readers on many occasions, Evolution knows the technology well, including its integration capabilities. John Wust, Joint Managing Director at Evolution, says that they also understood their client’s need to keep the existing IT infrastructure separate: “We centered the solution around the S2’s Quatro since it can be deployed as a standalone IP system that does not require software or client licences, ideal for this kind of site. Keeping it separate from the IT system was also something that the Third Millennium team wanted.”
With a single box design, which minimizes installation and maintenance costs, and with a license for up to four cameras, the system has proven both being flexible and economical.
Wind farms produced a record 15% of Britain’s electricity last year, equating to more than twice the output from coal. There is no question that wind-generated electricity, which is non-polluting and renewable, is steadily gaining ground. Renvico is one of the major European players within this market, and has recently opted for the latest generation of electronic access control to secure its growing wind farm business.
Renvico’s wind farms are geographically dispersed in remote locations, meaning wind turbines and their substructures are often exposed to the elements, including extreme weather, from freezing and frost conditions to humidity and direct sunlight. It is therefore essential to have a robust access control solution, which is able to cope with climatic conditions and meets the demanding security requirements of an isolated site.
The rising numbers of subcontractors in this sector increases this risk, making monitoring and controlling access points more prevalent than ever in order to guarantee the quality of the services provided
Reliable Access Control To Wind Turbines
The key challenge that affects security in this industry is that sites are often located a considerable distance from one another, and therefore ensuring that sites are secure while also providing enhanced access control is essential. The rising numbers of subcontractors in this sector increases this risk, making monitoring and controlling access points more prevalent than ever in order to guarantee the quality of the services provided.
In fact, as Olivier Rouchouze, maintenance and operation manager at Renvico France, explains, this activity requires fool-proof security at sites and reliable control of access to wind turbines: "Some companies intervening on our wind farms have a mission, which is limited in time or space. For example, a technical inspector will be granted access to all our equipment, but only for a short period of time, corresponding to a specific assignment, while someone doing maintenance on a wind farm will have access for a longer period, but only to the equipment at the facility in question.
Granting Access From Centralized Platform
“The system developed by LOCKEN allows us to give each intervening party personalized access for a fixed period, thanks to a unique key per user for all the equipment in our estate. In addition, access to these 100-meter-tall installations, which host high-voltage equipment, requires an authorization for work at height and electrical interventions. Allocated in real time from a centralized platform, access rights are only granted by Renvico to people with up-to-date authorisations."
Renvico opted for the latest generation of LOCKEN electronic keys, which combine the features of state-of-the-art electronics with a mechanical component.
With the LOCKEN solution, once the necessary authorisations have been loaded, a single key per operator allows access to clearly defined equipment, whether wind turbines or substructures"
Replacing Bunch Of Keys With A Single Key
“This spells the end for bunches of keys, which are tricky or even uncertain to manage, and which could end up stalling the work of personnel. The same goes for the problem of lost keys, which required us to take costly measures to ensure the highest levels of security,” says Olivier Rouchouze.
“With the LOCKEN solution, once the necessary authorisations have been loaded, a single key per operator allows access to clearly defined equipment, whether wind turbines or substructures, operated by Renvico. The key provides the energy needed to open the cylinders, which therefore do not require any electrical cabling. This feature ensures access to machines even when the power grid is faulty.”
LOCKEN's Mechatronic Solution
The electronic key with a mechanical component, termed mechatronic, chosen by Renvico, also has a Bluetooth module: the opening authorization is transmitted to the key by the user's smartphone thanks to the MyLocken application.
LOCKEN's mechatronic solution combines two key features: the robustness of the key, brought by its mechanical keyprint, as well as its state-of-the-art, contactless transmission, and the flexibility of its use for the security manager, since the authorisations are fully adjustable via the LOCKEN Smart Access software program, which is adapted to the needs of each customer.
Five wind farms, each with 5 to 16 wind turbines, are already equipped. Renvico plans to roll the solution out to a further 13 wind farms in the coming weeks.
The reviews are in, and ISC West was another hit. Brisk attendance and a comprehensive lineup of the industry’s top companies and products contributed to another successful show for Reed Exhibitions. Our Expert Panel Roundtable, who have attended many such events, added their own reflections to the industry’s post-ISC glow. We asked this week’s Expert Panel Roundtable: How successful was ISC West 2018 for security industry exhibitors and visitors?
Cloud computing has been around since the turn of the millennium. Over the years, the concept of storing and accessing programs over the Internet (instead of using an on-premises computer system) has grown in almost every realm of business. Some might say the physical security industry has come late to the party, delayed in some instances by (misguided?) concerns about cybersecurity of cloud systems. The bandwidth needed to transfer video to the cloud has also been a challenge. We asked this week’s Expert Panel Roundtable: What features of Cloud-based software-as-a-service (SaaS) are the most valuable to the average user?
How much does a security system cost? We all know that total costs associated with systems are substantially higher than the “price tag.” There are many elements, tangible and intangible, that contribute to the costs of owning and operating a system. Taking a broad view and finding ways to measure these additional costs enables integrators and users to get the most value from a system at the lowest total cost of ownership (TCO). However, measuring TCO can be easier said than done. We asked this week’s Expert Panel Roundtable to share the benefit of their collective expertise on the subject. Specifically, we asked: How should integrators and/or end users measure total cost of ownership (TCO) when quantifying the value of security systems?